CH 5 Vocab

Question Answer
cell cycle the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells
mitosis the division of the nucleus and its contents
cytokinesis process that divides the cells cytoplasm
chromosome one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
histones a group of proteins associated with chromosomes; DNA wraps around them
chromatin the complex of protein and DNA that makes up the chromosome
chromatid 1/2 of a duplicated chromosome
centromere place where sister chromatids are help together
telomere structures formed at the end of DNA molecules
prophase Chromatin condenses into tightly coiled chromosomes; consists of two identical sister chromatids. nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and centrosomes and centrioles begin to migrate to opposite sides of the cell. Spindle fibers grow fr
telophase A complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell. The nuclear membrane starts to form and the chromosomes begin to uncoil. The spindle fibers fall apart
metaphase The spindle fibers attach to a protein structure on the centromere of each chromosome and align chromosomes along the cell equator around the middle of the cell
anaphase Sister chromatids separate from each other. The spindle fibers begin to shorten pulling the sister chromatids away from each other and towards opposite ends of the cell
Growth factors A broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division and bind receptors that activate specific genes to trigger cell growth
Apoptosis Programmed cell death that occurs when internal or external signals activate genes that help produce self-destructive enzymes
Cancer The common name for class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
Benign Tumor where cancer cells typically remain clustered together
Malignant Tumor where cancer cells break away
Metastasize To break away from the tumor
Carcinogens Substances known to produce or promote the development of cancer
Binary fission The asexual reproduction of a single celled organism by which the cell divides into two cells of the same size. Used by most prokaryotes
Asexual reproduction The production of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes
Tissues Groups of cells that work together to perform a similar function
Organs Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
Organ systems Organs that carry out similar functions are further grouped into these
Cell differentiation The process by which a cell become specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
Stem cells A unique type of body cell that can divide and renew themselves for long periods of time, remain undifferentiated in form, and differentiate into a variety of specialized cells

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