Ch. 5

Elements are arranged in order of _______. (Mendeleev’s periodic table)
atomic mass
A repeating pattern is reffered to as _____.
periodic
Mosely discovered that if elements were placed in order of increasing _____, the periodic table fit into patterns better.
atomic #
The _________ states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic funtions of their atomic #s.
Periodic law
The ________ is an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic #s so that elements with similar properties fall in the same group.
periodic table
Ramsy discovered group 18 which are know as the ____.
noble gases
Why were noble gases discovered later than other groups?
lack of chemical reactivity
The ________ ate the 14 elements from atomuc numbers 58 to 71.
lanthanides
The ______ are the 14 elements from atomic #s 90 to 103.
actinides
The elements in group 2 are called the _____.
Alkaline earth metals
The elements in group 1 are the ____.
Alkali metals
The s and p block elements are called the _____.
main group elements
The p block includes all _______.
nonmetals
The _______ are located along the stair step lines.
metalloids
The elements of group 17 are called the ____.
Halogens
The ______ elements are the lanthanides and actinides.
f – block
The _______ is defined as one-half the distince between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together.
atomic radius
Atomic radius _________ across a period because of increasing positive charges of the nucleus.
decreases
The atomic radii of the main-group elements _________ down a group.
increase
An ______ is an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a + or a – charge.
ion
The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an alement is the __________.
Ionization energy (IE)
Ionization energies of the main group elements _____ across each period.
increase
In general, ______ have higher ionization energy than _____.
nonmetals, metals
What group has the highest ionization energy?
group 18
What group has the lowest ionization energy?
group 1
Ionizations usually ____ down the groups.
decrease
The energy change that occurs when an electron when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom is called the atoms’s _______.
electron affinity
As electrons add to the same p sublevel of atoms with increasing nuclear charge, electron affinities become more _______.
negative
Electron affinity _______ as you move down a group.
decreases
Second electron affinities area always ____.
positive
A positive ion is calledd a ______.
cation
The formation of a cation occurs when an atom _______ 1 or more electrons.
loses
A negitive ion is known as an ________.
anion
The formation of an anion occurs when an atom _____ 1 or more electrons.
gains
Cationic radii (metals) _____ across a period.
decrease
Anionic radii (nonmetals) _________ across a period.
decrease
Ionic radii ____ down a group.
increase
The electrons availible to be lost, gained or shared,in the formation of a chemical compounds are _____.
Valence electrons
________ is a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound.
Electronegativity
The most electronegative element is _____.
flourine (4.0)
The least electronegative elements are _______ and ________.
cesium and francium
Electronegatives _______ across a period.
increase
Electronegative elements ____ down a group.
decrease
The atomic radii of the d-block elements usually _____ across the periods.
decreases
Ionization energies of the d-block and f-block generally ______ down each group.
decrease
The d-block elements also follow the general trend for electro negativity values to ______ as radii decrease.
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