ch 4

Evidence suggesting the concept of the unconscious includes:
a.
dreams.
b.
post-hypnotic suggestions.
c.
free-association.
d.
all of these.
e.
direct observation based on experimental research.
d
A person who unconsciously exhibits overly nice behavior to conceal hostile feelings is probably using which ego defense?
a.
reaction formation
b.
projection
c.
introjection
d.
displacement
e.
regression
a
One of the most important Freudian concepts, which consists of pushing unacceptable life events and painful feelings into the unconscious, is:
a.
regression.
b.
rationalization.
c.
projection.
d.
repression.
e.
displacement.
d
The ego defense mechanism in which a person exhibits behavior that clearly shows signs of reverting to less mature stages is ____?
a.
regression
b.
fixation
c.
introjection
d.
reaction formation
e.
rationalization
a
Attributing to others the qualities or traits that are unacceptable to our own ego is best described as:
a.
displacement.
b.
reaction formation.
c.
projection.
d.
introjection.
e.
none of these.
c
Resolution of sexual conflicts and sex-role identity is a critical function of the:
a.phallic stage.
b.oral stage.
c.anal stage.
d.genital stage.
a
Feelings of hostility, destructiveness, anger, rage, and hatred are associated with the:
a.
oral stage.
c.
anal stage.
b.
genital stage.
d.
phallic stage.
c
The basic aim of psychoanalytic therapy is:
a.
to change overt behavior.
b.
to correct irrational thinking.
c.
to treat specific learning disorders.
d.
to make the unconscious material conscious.
d
A major characteristic of the classical psychoanalytic therapist is:
a.
openness and self-disclosure.
b.
a deeply personal and sharing relationship.
c.
a focus on specific behavior and an objective appraisal of learned patterns of behavior.
d.
a sense of being anonymous.
d
The “fundamental rule” for the client in psychoanalysis is:
a.
writing down dreams.
b.
willingness to do “homework assignments.”
c.
forming a contract with the therapist.
d.
participating in free association.
d
A more flexible variant of psychoanalysis is:
a.
psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy
b.
psychoanalytic behavior analysis
c.
psychoanalytically oriented reality therapy
d.
superego-oriented psychotherapy
a
The technique whereby the analyst explains the meaning of certain behavior is known as:
a.
rationalization.
b.
interpretation.
c.
free association.
d.
transference.
e.
countertransference.
b
The concept of resistance can best be described as:
a.
everything that prevents a client from producing unconscious material.
b.
that which needs to be analyzed and interpreted.
c.
an unwillingness to freely share with the analyst certain thoughts and feelings.
d.
an inevitable part of psychoanalytic therapy.
e.
all of these
e
A person who manages their anxiety by distorting reality and failing to acknowledge painful events is most likely using:
a.
denial.
b.
compensation.
c.
introjection.
d.
undoing.
e.
sublimation.
a
Directing energy toward another object or a person (when anxiety is reduced by focusing on a “safer target”) is known as:
a.
repression.
b.
displacement.
c.
introjection.
d.
compensation.
e.
sublimation.
b
Manufacturing “good” reasons to explain away a bruised ego, or to explain away failures or losses, is known as:
a.
displacement.
b.
rationalization.
c.
projection.
d.
reaction formation.
e.
introjection.
b
The young adult who adopts his parent’s outdated political beliefs to avoid unpleasant feelings of anxiety is an example of:
a.
projection.
b.
displacement.
c.
sublimation.
d.
introjection.
e.
reaction formation.
d
The ego defense mechanism that consists of masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations is known as:
a.
regression.
b.
compensation.
c.
reaction formation.
d.
sublimation.
e.
introjection.
b
The process of redirecting sexual energy into some form of socially acceptable behavior is known as:
a.
denial.
b.
displacement.
c.
repression.
d.
sublimation.
e.
compensation.
d
The Electra complex and the Oedipus complex are associated with what psychosexual stage of development?
a.
genital stage
b.
latency stage
c.
phallic stage
d.
oral stage
e.
anal stage
c
In Freud’s view, an individual experiencing neurotic anxiety feels:
a.
a realistic threat is present in the environment.
b.
he has behaved in a manner that is inconsistent with his moral code.
c.
guilt associated with past actions.
d.
he will not be able to control his instincts and will behave inappropriately.
d
Freud used the term libido in which of the following ways?
a.
to refer to the energy of all the life instincts
b.
To refer to the death instincts
c.
To account for the aggressive drive
d.
To refer to sexual abuse
a
What is the correct sequence of the psychosexual stages?
a.
latency/oral/anal/phallic/genital
b.
latency/anal/oral/phallic/genital
c.
oral/anal/phallic/latency/genital
d.
anal/phallic/latency/genital/oral
e.
oral/anal/latency/genital/phallic
c
In Erikson’s view, the major developmental task in adolescence is:
a.
intimacy vs. isolation.
b.
initiative vs. guilt.
c.
identity vs. shame and doubt.
d.
integrity vs. despair.
e.
identity vs. role confusion.
e
A person experiencing persistent feelings of inadequacy has probably had difficulty attaining a sense of ____ during the____ stage.
a.
identity; adolescent
b.
intimacy; young adulthood
c.
industry; school age
d.
initiative; preschool age
e.
integrity; later life
c
Jacqueline feels guilty whenever she considers taking a day off from work for personal reasons. Which of the psychic structures postulated by Freud is fueling her guilt feelings?
a.
The id
b.
The ego
c.
The superego
c
Self psychology and object-relations theory emphasize:
a.
the differentiation between self and others.
b.
the origins, transformations and organizational functions of the self.
c.
the influence of critical factors in early development on later development.
d.
all of these.
d
Which of the following statements is not true with regard to the relational approach to psychoanalysis?
a.
The approach is based on an egalitarian model.
b.
Countertransference provides rich information about the client’s dynamics.
c.
There is an exploration of the subjectivities of both client and therapist.
d.
Therapist anonymity is used to foster the transference relationship.
d
The primary aim of time limited dynamic psychotherapy is to:
a.
change the client’s repetitive patterns of relating to others.
b.
explore sources of childhood trauma.
c.
bring about catharsis.
d.
deal exclusively with a single presenting problem.
a
The main function of the ego is:
a.
to seek pleasure in life.
b.
to inhibit id impulses.
c.
to strive for perfection.
d.
to mediate between the instincts and the surrounding environment.
d
All of the following are true about the superego except:
a.
It governs, controls and regulates the personality.
b.
It inhibits id impulses.
c.
It is the judicial branch of personality.
d.
It represents the ideal.
e.
It is the internalization of the standards of parents and society.
a
Henry has the impulse to gamble excessively whenever he goes to Las Vegas. Aware of this, he has decided to turn down a job offer in Las Vegas to avoid the temptation to gamble. What part of Henry’s personality helped him to reach this decision?
a.
The superego
b.
The ego
c.
The id
b
If a person becomes fixated in the oral stage of development, later personality problems may include:
a.
rejecting others’ love.
b.
mistrust of others.
c.
fear of intimate relationships.
d.
all of these.
e.
none of these.
d
According to Erickson, the basic struggle of early childhood involves:
a.
initiative vs. guilt.
b.
autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
c.
trust vs. mistrust.
d.
identity vs. role confusion.
e.
intimacy vs. isolation.
b
The developmental crisis involving initiative vs. guilt occurs during the:
a.
later life.
b.
school age.
c.
early childhood stage.
d.
preschool age.
e.
adolescence.
d
A person who is suffering from feelings of alienation and isolation has probably failed to achieve a sense of ____ during the ____stage of development.
a.
identity; adolescence
b.
intimacy; young adulthood
c.
trust; infancy
d.
integrity; later life
e.
generativity; middle age
b
Developmentally, Freud’s latency stage corresponds to Erickson’s stage of:
a.
identity versus role confusion.
b.
industry versus inferiority.
c.
intimacy versus isolation.
d.
trust versus mistrust.
e.
initiative versus guilt.
b
From a multicultural perspective, classical analysis may:
a.
underscore the role of important cultural and political factors in the client’s world.
b.
discourage clients who do not hold upper-middle-class values.
c.
be problematic for clients from cultures that prefer a directive approach.
d.
all of the above
d
All of the following are a part of Jung’s view of development except:
a.
collective unconscious.
b.
the shadow.
c.
archetypes.
d.
individuation
e.
symbiosis.
e
Who developed the object-relations view that focuses on separation and individuation?
a.
Erikson
b.
Rogers
c.
Satir
d.
Perls
e.
Mahler
e
Because ego and consciousness are not the same, the slogan for psychoanalysis has shifted from “making the unconscious conscious” to
a.
“stop blaming your mother!”
b.
“making the ego conscious.”
c.
“get rid of the id kid!”
d.
“where there was id, let there be ego.”
e.
“may the force be within you.”
d
In order to meet the goals of psychoanalytic treatment, Rhonda must help her eating disordered clients to:
a.
increase their support networks and develop social interest.
b.
replace negative self-talk with positive self-talk.
c.
make use of programs such as Weight Watchers or the Atkins diet plan.
d.
reduce their symptoms and resolve their internal conflicts.
d
Which of the following is not a component of the brief psychodynamic approaches?
a.
developing a strong working alliance
b.
use of interpretation early in the therapeutic relationship
c.
targeting a specific interpersonal problem during the first session
d.
the therapist functioning as a blank slate
e.
none of these
d
All of the following are true about a therapist’s countertransference reactions except:
a.
they can provide rich understanding of the client’s experience.
b.
they should be avoided.
c.
they have the potential to interfere with effective treatment.
d.
they should be carefully monitored by the therapist.
b
Which of the following statements is true about the relationship a client has with his or her analyst?
a.
The analyst is free to engage in spontaneous self-expression if a client makes an erroneous comment.
b.
The client is free to express any idea or feeling as long as it is not scandalous.
c.
The client is encouraged to use “solution talk” and avoid talking about problems.
d.
The client is free to express any idea or feeling, no matter how irresponsible, scandalous, politically incorrect, selfish, or infantile.
d
In object-relations theory, later relationships build upon:
a.
the child’s search for approval from the father.
b.
one’s birth order.
c.
one’s striving to overcome felt inferiority.
d.
the child’s search for a reconnection with the mother.
e.
the quality of relationships with one’s siblings.
d
Which statement below is not accurate with regard to the phenomenon of countertransference?
a.
It is critical that therapists monitor their own feelings during therapy sessions and use their responses as a source for increased self-awareness and understanding of their clients.
b.
Countertransference reactions are inevitable because all therapists have unresolved conflicts and personal vulnerabilities that are activated through their professional work.
c.
Most research on countertransference has dealt with its deleterious effects and how to manage these reactions.
d.
Countertransference reactions are the weakest source of data for understanding the world of the client since they are so biased.
d
Individuals who display exhibitionistic traits, seek attention and admiration from others, and are extremely self-absorbed might have which of the following personality disorders?
a.
narcissistic
c.
borderline
b.
dependent
d.
obsessive-compulsive
a
A person with a ____ personality disorder is characterized by instability, irritability, self-destructive acts, impulsive anger, and extreme mood shifts. This person is lacking a clear sense of identity, has poor impulse control, and an inability to tolerate anxiety.
a.
obsessive-compulsive
c.
dependent
b.
narcissistic
d.
borderline
d
It is of paramount importance that therapists develop some level of objectivity and not react defensively and subjectively in the face of:
a.
anger.
b.
love.
c.
criticism.
d.
adulation.
e.
all of these.
e
Analytic therapy is oriented toward:
a.
identifying and experiencing feelings and memories.
b.
reconstructing childhood experiences.
c.
developing an in-depth self-understanding.
d.
achieving insight.
e.
all of these
e
As a result of the client/therapist relationship in psychoanalytic therapy:
a.
clients acquire insights into their own unconscious psychodynamics.
b.
awareness is increased on the client’s part.
c.
clients are better able to understand the association between their past experiences and their current behavior.
d.
all of these
d
The techniques of psychoanalytic therapy are aimed at:
a.
helping clients see how their thinking leads to certain emotional and behavioral patterns.
b.
gaining insights into the client’s behavior.
c.
teaching people social skills such as assertive behavior.
d.
helping clients to resolve their competitive strivings with their siblings.
b
In psychoanalytic therapy, how do clients work with their dreams?
a.
They report their dreams and are encouraged to free associate to the elements of the dream.
b.
They look for mystical meanings underlying the dream.
c.
They “become” each part of their dream and act out these parts in fantasy.
d.
They look to their dreams as signs of prediction of the future.
a
Which of the following is not typically a standard psychoanalytic technique?
a.
exploration of patterns of resistance
b.
analysis of transference
c.
exploration of one’s position in the family
d.
free association
e.
interpretation
c
The ego is the original structure of personality.
true
The Freudian view of human nature is deterministic.
true
Traditional analytic therapists make more frequent interpretations of transferences and engage in fewer supportive interventions than is the case with psychodynamic therapists.
true
The id is related to the concept of libido.
true
Freud postulated the concepts of both life instincts and death instincts.
true
According to Freud, consciousness constitutes the largest part of one’s psychological functioning.
false
Ego-defense mechanisms, by their very nature, imply psychopathology.
false
Freud postulated the theory of infantile sexuality.
true
The major developmental task of the anal stage is acquiring a sense of trust.
false
During the anal stage, children typically experience a range of negative feelings, including rage, hate, and hostility.
true
According to Freudians, greediness and hoarding may develop as a result of not getting oral needs properly met.
true
The phallic stage typically occurs during the ages of 1 to 3.
false
The latency stage occurs between the ages of 5 to 12.
true
The Oedipal complex and the Electra complex are associated with the genital stage of development.
false
Analytic therapists view transference as a factor that results from ineffective intervention on the therapist’s part.
false
All analytically oriented therapists subscribe to the model of the “anonymous therapist” or the “blank screen” as a necessary way to foster transference.
false
Free association is one of the basic tools used to gain access to the unconscious.
true
Analytically oriented therapists typically interpret free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences.
true
Clients in analytic therapy typically free associate to various symbols in their dreams.
true
Resistance, in the analytic view, results from either a conscious unwillingness on the part of the client to cooperate, or from the ineptness of the therapist in developing a sound therapeutic program.
false
The analysis of transference is a central technique in psychoanalysis.
true
Psychoanalysis provides therapists with a conceptual framework for looking at behavior and understanding the origins and functions of present symptoms.
true
The relational model of psychoanalysis regards transference as an interactive process between the client and therapist.
true
The relational model of psychoanalysis downplays the role of countertransference.
false
Brief psychodynamic therapies target specific interpersonal problems during the initial session.
true
Brief psychodynamic therapists tend to assume an active role in the therapy process.
true
Psychodynamic group leaders do not interpret their client’s transferences.
false
The working-through process consists of repetitive and elaborate explorations of unconscious material and defenses, most of which originated in early childhood.
true
In psychodynamic group work, symbolic figures from a client’s past may emerge.
true
The psychoanalytic approach provides practitioners with a framework for understanding the origins and functions of symptoms.
true

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