com is complex we cant quantify the relative contribution of nonverbal com with verbal com.
provides more meaning then people realize.
with email ppl use emoticons
nonverbal com works in 6 ways:
repeating: occurs when the same message is sent verbally and nonverbally, direct a motorcycle left by pointing and saying where they should turn
emphasizing: use of nonverbal cues to strengthen your message, hugging a friend to show that you care about the stronger then just saying you care
Complementing: different from repeating in that it goes beyond duplication of the message in two 2 channels, the verbal and nonverbal codes add meaning to eachother and expand the meaning of either message alone.
Contradicting : occurs when your verbal and nonverbal messages conflict. occurs on accident when your angry you state verbally your fine but your facial expression says something else.
substituting: occurs when non verbal codes are used instead of verbal codes., roll your eyes or stick out tongue, most cases your intended message is clear.
regulating: occurs when nonverbal codes are used to monitor and control interactions with others.- you walk away from someone has hurt your feelings or made you angry., shaking your head to encourage someone to keep talking.
a variety of coded communicate the same meaning:
one example is the way in which people show affections., you may sit closer, speak softer, dress differently
cultural differences are relevant when we consider that multiple cues ,au nr used to express a similar message, some cultures show respect by adverting their eyes, other cultures show respect by looking directly at the speaker.
interpreting the meaning of nonverbal comm is partly a matter of assessing the other person unique behavior and considering the context.
you don’t just read body lang you observe analyze and interpret before you decide meaning.
assessing another persons behavior means you need to know how that person usually acts.- a person that never smiles may not be unhappy- you need to know how the other person expresses emotion before you can interpret what his or his non verbal com means.
Mehrabian: studied nonverbal comm by examining concepts of liking, status, and responsiveness.
– we express liking by forward leaning, close prox, increased touching, relaxed posture, open arms, positive expression etc
– status is communicated by bigger gestures, relaxed posture, and less eye contact
– responsiveness: exhibited by movement toward another person, by spontaneous gestures. by shifts in pasture and position, faceil expressiveness., in other words positive feedback.
emblems: nonverbal movements that sub. for words and phrases, forefinger and thumb means ok
illustrators: nonverbal movements that accompany or reinforce verbal messages. -shaking head when saying no
affect displays: nonverbal movements used to show emotion. door slam when angry person leaves room
regulators: nonverbal movements that control the flow of comm, starting to move away when you want a con to end.
adaptors: nonverbal movements that you might perform fully in private but partially in public- scratching your nose rather then picking it.
Ekman and Friesen determined that a persons facial expression provide info to others about how that person feels.
people are more likely to attend to faces that are angry rather than neutral- proactive means to help people in danger.
in a study some positive facial expressions did not lessen the neg response toward the speaker.
scientists have combined the study of the mind and body
facial expression convey infor to others while body movement adds to that info by suggesting how intense the feeling may be.
people who are physically attractive are privileged over those who are not.- more strong towards women.
Jaeger: taller men makes more then short, women who are not overweight have higher social eco status, both men and women that are attractive will marry at younger ages
PA leads to more social success in adulthood. – men prefer brunette and lighter skin.
Eastwick and Finkelfound that mean desire attraction while women desire higher earning or money.
matching hyp: women and men seek others who are of similar attractiveness. – Loewensteim , Ariely, Hong, Young
people who are fat have less physical attractiveness
PA affects credibility and ones ability to persuade others.
attractiveness may now be based on words and messages rather than looks. – online relationships
Werner and space:
territoriality: refers to the need to establish and maintain certain spaces as your own- signal ownership, splitting the desk with a roommate
personal space: bubble that moves around with you . distance you maintain between yourself and others, amount of space you claim as your own
Hall: 4 communicating distances
intimate: use this with people who are close to you. used more in private, to show affection or comfort, elicits a powerful response
personal distance: 18 in to 4 ft distance used for com
social distance: 4 to 12ft used to carry out business in a workplace, the higher the status of someone the greater the distance
public distance exceeds 12 ft used in public speaking and lecture halls churches, etc.
distance is a nonverbal means of comm everything from the size of your bubble to your relationship with the person to whom you are speaking or listening
sex, size, and similarity are determiners of personal space
cultural background must also be considered In space., can result in differences in the use of space and peoples interpretation of such use.
can be perceived on a macro level – past present or future.
monochromic: work on one thing at a time people view time as more important to them than anything else, view privacy as important and work independently and rarely borrow or lend money, they appear to be secluded and isolated – US, Canada, Germany, Switzerland
polychromic people work on several tasks at a time,time is important but not reserved interpersonal relationships is most important. , they tend to be engaged with others – Egypt. Saudia Arabia, Mexico, Philippines
time is viewed dissimilarly in different cultures- in Us workplace and electronic comm have been studied for time. slow responses to emails cause perceptions of decreased closeness , sex and emotional empathy also contribute.
highest job satisfaction occurred among people who have viewed their work as more punctual and oriented toward the future.
can be welcomed or unwelcomed.
insufficient touching can lead to health disorders . speech probs, and even death.
for adults, touch is a powerful means of com.- touch is perceived as powerful, pleasurable, and reinforcing -people who are comfortable with touch are more likely to be satisfied with their past and current lives.- more socially acceptable and active in confronting problems
touch is a part of many important rituals. like baptism
religion and medicine are 2 professions in which touch is important.
touch varies by gender: women value touch more, women are touched more, women touch female children more then male, men and sons touch the least, men touch other men more then females touch other females, men may use touch to show dominance
higher status people get to initiate touch, but touch is not reciprocal.
co culture and culture determine the frequency and kind of com, people from different countries handle nonverbal com differently especially touch. , people in Puerto Rico touch a lot
touch sends a such a powerful message that it has to be handled with responsibility
touch can be misunderstood- when right touch is abused it can cause a breach of trust or anxiety.
paralinguistic features: the nonword sounds and non word characteristics of language such as pitch volume race and quality.
vocal ques: a para feature examined is vocal ques: all of the aspects of sound except words themselves
Pitch: highness or lowness of voice
rate: how rapidly or slowly you speak
inflection: variety of changes in your speech
Volume: loudness or softness of your voice.
quality: the unique resonance of your voice, such as huskiness, nasality, whininess
Nonword sounds: ahs and ums and huh as well as pauses or the absence of sounds
pronunciation: whether or not you say a word correctly
articulation: whether or not you mouth tongue and teeth coordinate to make a word understandable to others.
enunciation: whether or not you combine pronunciation ad articulation to produce a word with clarity and distinction so that it can be understood
silence: lack of sound
vocal ques are important because they are linked in our mind with a speakers physical characteristics emotional state gender characteristics , personality, and even credibility
Kramer: vocal cues convey info about the speakers characteristics like age height and appearance and body type. – high pitched voice is usually associated with a female.
joy and hate are conveyed with fewer vocal cues, making them less difficult to interpret than shame or love- (complex vocal cues)
active feelings like joy and hate involve loud voice, high pitch, rapid rate
passive feelings like affection and sadness are communicated through a soft voice, low pitch. and slow rate.
Personality has been related to vocal cues- dominance and social ability have been correlated with specific cues , irony cannot be determined on the basis of cues alone.
our impressions affect our interactions – although you may perceive someone as loud and high pitched as dominant a person. test may say something else.
in your interactions with people you may become submissive bc of your perception that they are dominant. , these people could become more dominant if they are treated as if they are.
vocal cues help a speaker est creditablity- pitch and inflection can make the speech sound pleasing , to sow a statement from a question, etc. rapid speaking could mean you are confident or nervous, variations in volume can emphasize or add suspense. enunciation is important bc of size and fewer opp for feedback. pauses create dramatic effect. vocalized pauses like um will distract audience.
silence is better then vocalized pauses. – sometimes silence is best. , however, silence can also signal the dark side of com.. people in power may silence others.
artifacts: ornaments or adornments you display that hold commutative potential , jewelry, hair styles, etc.
clothing communicate age, gender, status, role,socio class, relation to opposite sex, etc,
these cues indicate time in history, time of day, and climate, culture
clothing and artifactc provide physical and psy, protection and they are used to spur sexualt attraction and to indicate self concept
people seem to base their acceptance of others on their clothing and artifacts
clothing communicates authority and peoples roles- white coat for doctors
there is a renewed interest in clothing as it relates to religion and identity has occurred in the last decade -more aware of muslims after 9/11, indian people wear long skirts
crosses have been banned in schools due to gang behavior.
toddlers in beauty pagents is another area of controversy
body modifications are type of artifact, includes tattoos piercing- men with tattoes are considered to be more dominant women with tattoos are viewed as less healthy
context: physical setting the occasion or situation, paraling. features are most important bc you have to adjust volume and rate, enunciate clearly and you have to use more vocal variety to keep the audiences attention. , pauses and silence is also more apparent in public speaking than interpersonal context
the setting also effects the potential meaning of nonverbal cues. – when would it be appropriate to have un combed hair, where would it be inappr?
the audience is important so you must adapt. when speaking with kids you use simple vocab with older audience with hearing probs you must adapt your volume. all people like slower speech , adaptation to audience can determine your clothing or hairstyle, etc
your attention to giving feedback is important in helping others interpret your nonverbal cues that might otherwise distract your listeners. – listeners own feedback of nodding off can signal you to talk louder or clarify your message more., if no one gives you feedback you should ask qustions and check on the perceptions of others with whom you communicate, silence has many meaning , also consider past experiences with particular individuals or a similar audience – do they ever provide feedback?
2. recognize that others may use time differently then you do. attend class a and be on time, take adv of office hours.
3. manage your time just how professors and employers do, do your work, and do your job at work.
4. manage your time in your interactions with others , allow others to share
5.be aware that most professors and employers are not interested in a personal relationship.
6. Dress appropriately for school and work.
7. Avoid using back-channel nonverbal com to suggest that you disagree with a professor or employer. if you have a question or disagreement express it clearly and explicitly. people don’t mind opinions but they hate mocking.