CH 301

Atomic Radii increases
more down and left!
Effectice Nuclear Charge is the key to
predicting periodic trends, higher the charge, the more pull to the nucleus
Ions want to be like
Noble gases
Isoelectronic
ions that have same number of electrons
If all aoms are isoelectronic, the smallest in ionic radii is
the one with most protons
It is hard for Na to go from level 1 to level 2 because
it has a full valence shell and is very hard to pull one off
Ionization Energy increases
across a period
Ionization energy increases across a period becuase
ENC is higher so the electrons hold on tighter!
Electron affinity process is likely to occur if the atom is
negative and large
Larger value of electron affinity =
more energy given off= more stable
Electron affinity
change in energy when an electron is added to a gaseous atom to form an anion
EA becomes less negative as you
move down a group bc higher effective nuclear charge, less shielding, closer to nucleus!
Higher Electron Affinity = more likely to
add an electron
Electronegativity is the measure of
relative tendency of an atom to attract itself when chemically combined with another element
Noble gases aren’t very electronegative becuase
they don’t want any more electrons
Electronegativy is measured on ___ scale
Pauling
anions of the compound are larger in ionic radii than
the parent neutral atom
covalent bonding is
nonmetal to nonmetal bonding
ionic bonding is
a nonmetal and a metal
which typically loses electrons?
CATIONS
naming a covalent bond you give it
prefixes like mono di tri tetra
phosphate
PO^-3
sub 4
Carbonate
CO ^(-2)
sub 3
ammonium
NH^(+)
sub 4
sulfate
SO^(-2)
sub 4
sulfite
SO^(-2)
sub 3
Nitrate
NO^(-)
sub 3
Nitrite
NO(-)
sub 2
Bicarbonate
HCO^(-)
sub 3
Peroxide
O^(-2)
sub 2
crystal lattice energy is always
exothermic & negative
crystal lattice energy is the energy change
accompanying the formation of one
mole of formula units in the crystalline state
from constituent particles in the gaseous state.
Be wants __ electrons
4
B wants __ electrons
6
angular mg can only be formed from
sp2 and sp3 hybrids
trigonal bipyramidal with 4 bonded pairs molecular geometry is
seesaw
octrahedral with 3 bonded pairs molecular geometry is
t shaped
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