Ch 15 Evolution: Key People

Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
1809-1882. English naturalist, eminent collector and geologist, who proposed and provided evidence that all species of life have evolved through process of natural selection. This is the basis of modern evolutionary theory, and, in modified form, his scientific discovery remains as the foundation of biology. Author of “On The Origin Of Species” in 1859.

Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
He effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth’s surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth’s surface over an immensely long time

Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
(1744-1829) Principle of use and disuse: the idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while those that are not used deteriorate. Principle of inheritance of acquired characteristics: an organism could pass modifications to its offspring.
Lamarck’s contribution to evolutionary theory consisted of the first truly cohesive theory of evolution

Ernst Mayr
Ernst Mayr
1927: Led a research team to the Arafak Mountains in New Guinea. They asked local tribes about the forest. 137 different names of birds. After taxonomical studies, there were 138 species of birds.
He contributed to the conceptual revolution that led to the modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics, systematics, and Darwinian evolution, and to the development of the biological species concept

Theodosius Dobzhansky
Theodosius Dobzhansky
In his “Genetics and the Origin of Species” (1937), this scientist integrated the mathematics of population genetics with overall evolutionary theory.
Famous quote “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution”

Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(1769-1832) Largely developed paleontology, the study of fossils. Advocated catastrophism. He is the father of comparative anatomy.

James Hutton
He proposed that the earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over extremely long periods of time estimated the earth to be millions of years old. Father of Geology. His theories of geology and geologic time, also called deep time, came to be included in theories which were called plutonism and uniformitarianism. He is also credited as the first scientist to publicly express the Earth was alive and should be considered a superorganism

Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834) Malthus thought that the dangers of population growth would preclude endless progress towards a utopian society: “The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man

Godfrey Hardy
Godfrey Hardy
(1) mathematically demonstrated that in a nonevolving population, the relative frequency of dominant and recessive alleles should not change from generation to generation, (2) demonstrated that Mendel’s discrete units could be maintained from generation to generation

Wilhelm Weinberg
Wilhelm Weinberg
Physician – Independently found that some alleles are in equilibrium, also expressed the concept that would later come to be known as the Hardy-Weinberg principle.

Carolus Linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus
was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology

Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould
His most significant contribution to evolutionary biology was the theory of punctuated equilibrium, which he developed with Niles Eldredge in 1972. The theory proposes that most evolution is marked by long periods of evolutionary stability, which is punctuated by rare instances of branching evolution. The theory was contrasted against phyletic gradualism, the popular idea that evolutionary change is marked by a pattern of smooth and continuous change in the fossil record

George Gaylord Simpson
George Gaylord Simpson
an American paleontologist. He was perhaps the most influential paleontologist of the twentieth century, and a major participant in the modern evolutionary synthesis, contributing Tempo and mode in evolution (1944), The meaning of evolution (1949) and The major features of evolution (1953). He was an expert on extinct mammals and their intercontinental migrations He anticipated such concepts as punctuated equilibrium (in Tempo and mode) and dispelled the myth that the evolution of the horse was a linear process culminating in the modern Equus caballus

Lynn Margulis
Lynn Margulis
She is best known for her theory on the origin of eukaryotic organelles, and her contributions to the endosymbiotic theory, which is now generally accepted for how certain organelles were formed. She showed that animals, plants, and fungi all originated from protists. She is also associated with the Gaia hypothesis, based on an idea developed by the English environmental scientist James Lovelock