ch.10 learning disorder

learning disorders
reading disorder (dyslexia), mathematics disorder (dyscalculia) and disorder of written expression (dysgraphia)

reading disorder
Most common underlying feature of reading disorder is an inability to distinguish the sounds in spoken words.

typical errors of reading disorder
reversals of b/d, p/q. Transpositions: was/saw, scared/sacred. Interventions: m/w, u/n. Omissions: place/palace, section/selection. The core deficit in reading disorder is decoding,reading single small words; breaking a word into parts rapidly enough to read the whole word.

mathematics disorder
Many skills are involved in arithmetic: recognizing numbers and symbols, memorizing facts (multiplication table), aligning numbers, and understanding abstract concepts (place value, fractions)

core deficits on mathematics disorder
in arithmetic calculation and/or mathematics reasoning abilities, including:
Naming amounts or numbers, Enumerating, comparing, and manipulating objects, Reading and writing mathematical symbols,
Understanding concepts and performing calculations mentally,Performing computational operations

disorder of written expression
Weaknesses are evident in visual-motor abilities, as shown by writing, figure copying, and figure rotation.

core deficits of written expression
Problems with tasks that require eye/hand coordination
Spelling errors or poor handwriting by themselves do not qualify a child for this diagnosis
This disorder is less understood than other learning disorders
Commonly found in combination with reading disorder or mathematics disorder.

prevalence of learning disorders
According to DSM-IV-TR, the prevalence of LD ranges from 2-10%, with approximately 5% of children and adolescents in public schools meeting criteria. Individual prevalence rates:Reading disorder = 4%
Mathematics disorder = 1%
Disorder of written expression = <1%. Learning disorders of all types are more common in boys than in girls

comorbidity
Comorbidity with a learning disorder is the rule rather than the exception. Common co-occurring disorders include language disorders and ADHD. LD/ADHD children have significant impairments in both learning and attention/behavioral control.

course of learning disorders
Reading disorders and disorders of written expression are usually identified earlier than mathematics disorder.¾ of children diagnosed with a reading disorder in elementary school still have major reading problems in high school.Nearly 40% of LD children drop out of school before high school graduation.

etiology of learning disorders
No single etiological factor has been identified in the development of LD.Twin studies indicate a genetic contribution to LD (Higher concordance rates in MZ twins than in DZ twins)

biological factors of etiology of learning disorders
Perceptual systems
Perceptual-motor functioning
Neurological organization
Oculomotor functioning
ineffective learning strategies may be another etiological factor

treatment of learning disorders
Interventions usually include some combination of educational and psychological interventions. such education services may include: Instructional interventions, School-home notes,
Performance feedback,
Contingency-management interventions,
Peer tutoring, Cooperative learning

mainstreaming
has led to a strong push to keep special education children in regular education classrooms.

phonological training
Used for children with reading disorder.
Uses techniques like word identification training to help children gain mastery over reading and writing.Effective in treatment of reading disorder.