Ch.1 Understanding Sociology
The loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective; disruption in the rules and understandings that guide and integrate social life and give individuals a sense of their place in it.
The use of the discipline of sociology when the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
Sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena; also knows as “Pure sociology”
Members of the bourgeoisie
A sense of shared interests and problems among members of a social class.
Altercations that occur when the exercise of power meets resistance
A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
The attempt to develop an understanding that goes behind surface appearances to ask why and how events happen or conditions persist, whether social conditions could be changed, and in which different ways a given problem can be conceptualized.
The learned norms, customs, values, knowledge, artifacts, language, and symbols that are constantly communicated among people who share a common way of life.
view of social interaction that examines people as if they were theatrical performers
Element or process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability
Sociological approach emphasizing the way parts of a society are structured to maintain stability.
The ways in which the different parts of a social system are often so closely interrelated that what happens in one affects the others, and is influenced by them in turn.
Use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships and facilitating change.
A construct/model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.
Sociological approach that generalizes about fundamental, everyday forms of social interaction.
Unconscious or unintended functions; hidden purposes
Sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations
Open, stated, conscious function
Solidarity based on common beliefs, values, and customs
Sociological investigation that stresses study of small groups and often uses laboratory experimental studies
The sending of messages through the use of gestures, posture, etc.
interdependence among a group of people that is based on an intricate division of labor
A philosophy that holds that people construct their own social reality in accordance with the ways they experience and understand their social world
the ability of a social actor to control the actions of others, directly/indirectly
The members of a capitalist industrialized society who have no control over the means of production–mainly the workers
behavior which is shaped by a person’s understanding, interpretations, and intentions and which is in response to, coordinated with, or oriented toward the actions of others.
Enduring properties of social life that shape or constrain the actions individuals can take.
The study of various aspects of human society
the condition that results when underlying social forces bind people together
stable, enduring patterns of social relationships, or social positions, and of numbers of people; patterns over which individuals have little control
An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society; a way of looking at our personal experiences in the context of what is going on in the world around us.
A general perspective in sociology that places its main emphasis on functional integration and social structure
An approach to human behavior as constructed in interaction and interpreted through culture, stressing the collective attribution of meaning to social life; the most widespread theoretical orientation within interactionism
The German word for “understanding” or “insight”; used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account people’s emotions, thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes.