CH 1 SOCIOLOGY

antipositivism
the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social
processes, cultural norms, and societal values

conflict theory
a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources

constructivism
an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively
construct it to be

culture
a group’s shared practices, values, and beliefs

dramaturgical analysis
a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the metaphor of theatrical
performance

dynamic equilibrium
a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society work together properly

dysfunctions
social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society

figuration
the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society that shapes that
behavior

function
the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural
continuity

functionalism
a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the
biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society

generalized others
the organized and generalized attitude of a social group

grand theories
an attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why
societies form and why they change

latent functions
the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process

manifest functions
sought consequences of a social process

paradigms
philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations,
and the experiments performed in support of them

social institutions
patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs

sociological imagination
the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to
history in general and societal structures in particular

C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how society affects
individuals
b. imagination

A sociologist defines society as a group of people who reside in a defined area, share a culture, and who
a. interact

Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to:
c. identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure

Which of the following was a topic of study in early sociology?
b. Economics

. Which founder of sociology believed societies changed due to class struggle?
b. Karl Marx

The difference between positivism and antipositivism relates to:
c. whether sociological studies can predict or improve society

. Which would a quantitative sociologists use to gather data?
a. A large survey

Weber believed humans could not be studied purely objectively because they were influenced by:
b. their culture

Which of these theories is most likely to look at the social world on a micro level?
d. Symbolic interactionism

Who coined the phrase symbolic interactionism?
a. Herbert Blumer

A symbolic interactionist may compare social interactions to:
d. theatrical roles

4. Which research technique would most likely be used by a symbolic interactionist?
b. Participant observation

Kenneth and Mamie Clark used sociological research to show that segregation was:
b. harmful

Studying sociology helps people analyze data because they learn:
d. all of the above

Berger describes sociologists as concerned with:
c. both a and b