Ch 1: Intro To Psych (Mod 1-4)

psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes (1)
structuralism
Wundt’s approach that focuses on the fundamental elements that form the foundation of thinking, consciousness, emotions, and other kindsof mental states and activities (2)
introspection
A procedure used to study the structure of the mind, in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus (2)
functionalism
An early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does‚ the functions of mental activity‚ and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments (2)
gestalt (geh SHTALLT) psychology
An approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a “whole” sense, rather than on the individual elements of perception (2)
neuroscience perspective
The approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, nervous system, and other biological functions (2)
psychodynamic perspective
The approach based on the belief that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control (2)
behavioral perspective
The approach that suggests that observable behavior should be the focus of study (2)
cognitive perspective
The approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world (2)
humanistic perspective
The approach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior (2)
free will
The idea that behavior is caused primarily by choices that are made freely by the individual (2)
determinism
The idea that people’s behavior is produced primarily by factors outside their willful control (2)
scientific method
The approach through which psychologists systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest (3)
theories
Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest (3)
hypothesis
A prediction, stemming from a theory, stated in a way that allows it to be tested (3)
operationalization
The process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed (3)
descriptive research
An approach to research designed to systematically investigate a person, group, or patterns of behavior (3)
archival research
Research in which existing data, such as census documents, college records, or newspaper clippings, are examined to test a hypothesis (3)
naturalistic observation
Research in which an investigator simply observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation (3)
survey research
Research in which people chosen to represent some larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes (3)
case study
An in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people (3)
variable
Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way (3)
correlational research
Research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or “correlated” (3)
experiment
The investigation of the relationship between two (or more) variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation (3)
experimental manipulation
The change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation (3)
treatment
The manipulation implemented by the experimenter (3)
experimental group
Any group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment (3)
control group
A group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment (3)
independent variable
Any group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment (3)
dependent variable
The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable (3)
random assignment to condition
A procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or “conditions” on the basis of chance and chance alone (3)
significant outcome
Meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses (3)
replication
The repetition of research, sometimes using other procedures, settings, and other groups of participants, in order to increase confidence in prior findings (3)
informed consent
A document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve (4)
experimental bias
Factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment (4)
placebo
A false treatment, such as a pill, “drug,” or other substance without any significant chemical properties or active ingredient (4)