Cell Organelles


Vacuoles
Store waste products, nutrients, and water. In plant cells it also store nutrients, and regulates turgor pressure in the cell.

Nucleus
DNA is found in the nucleus, RNA is also made here; surrounded by a membrane; controls all cellc activites

Nucleolus
This produces ribosomes; found in the nucleus


Cytoplasm
Part of the cell that is outside the nucleus; contains organelles and provides the perfect environment for chemical reactions to take place

Centriole
Play a role in mitosis (cell division), in animal cels only – Ring of nine groups of fused microtubules. Three microtubules in each group. These are part of the cytoskeleton. Inherited from your father.

Golgi Apparatus/Golgi Bodies
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins

Lysosome
Contains digestive enzymes necessary for breaking down materials within a cell

Chloroplast
Use carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. Found in plant cells and some protists. They reflect green light while absorbing all other colors. *contain DNA

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/> Cell Membrane
Double layer of phospholipids (lipid bilayer) that surrounds the cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell.

Mitochondria
Provides energy to cell. Have a double membrane. The outside is smooth but the inner is highly folded to increase its surface area. Cellular respiration is performed here, making energy (ATP) for the cell. Has its own DNA and ribosomes.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Assembles membrane lipids and detoxifies the cell of drugs; no ribosomes on this organelle.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Proteins are made on the endoplasmic reticulum’s ribosomes. They are collected inside the endoplasmic reticulum and transported throughout the cell. Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell.

Ribosome
Assembles proteins; free ribosomes make proteins that will stay in the cell. Attached ribosomes (attached to the ER) make proteins that will be transported out of the cell.

Cytoskeleton
Helps maintain cell shape. Its primary importance is in cell motility. It makes the cell move internally and externally.
Made of microfilaments and microtubules. (protein strands)

Cell Wall
Thick outer layer in plant cells. Made of the carbohydrate cellulose. It maintains the shape of these cells and creates a protective barrier. Fluid collects in the plant cell’s vacuole and pushes against it, creating turgor pressure. Also found in fungi, algae, and some bacteria.

Chromatin/Chromosomes
plant and animal cell: strands that contain the genetic material that tells the cell how to function.

Vesicles
A small structure made of a lipid bilayer used to transport materials through the cell.

Cilia
Slender cell extension that project outward from the cell – can be used for movement of the cell or to push materials past the cell.

Flagella
Whip-like appendage that extends from the bell body; used for movement or for sensing the environment

Peroxisomes
Contain an enzyme that allows the breakdown of H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) which is made by cell reactions and is toxic to the cell

Chromoplasts
center for photosynthesis (yellow, red, orange pigments)

Leucoplast
storage container for starches in plants

Microtubule
part of the cytoskeleton – made of tubulin-used to move substances around the cell – framework of cell

Microfilament
part of the cytoskeleton – made of actin-used to move substances around the cell – framework of cell

Nucleoid
large loop of DNA found in prokaryotes-coding for MOST genes

Plasmid
small loop of DNA found in prokaryotes – coding for a few genes
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