cell cycle study guide

asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself (genetically identical)
sexual reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism (genetically different)
efficiency
the smaller the cell size, the more efficient it is at taking in materials
double stranded chromosome
two sister chromatids attached by a centromere
interphase
the period of growth that prepares the cell for mitosis
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
g1
first step in interphase, period of cell growth
s
second step in interphase, dna is copied
g2
the final period of interphase during which many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced
prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromatin winds up into double stranded chromosomes, the spindle fibers form, and the centrioles move to opposite poles
metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, double stranded chromosomes split at their centromere and single stranded chromosomes move to opposite poles
telophase
the fourth phase of mitosis, the chromosomes spread out into a tangle of chromatin, the nuclear envelope reforms, the spindle fibers break down, and the nucleolus becomes visible
spindle fibers
help pull apart the cell during replication and are made up of micrtubules
cytokinesis in plant cells
a cell plate forms between the divided nuclei, forming a new membrane and a new cell wall
cytokinesis in animal cells
the cell membrane is drawn inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts, each part contains its own nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles
cancer cells
instead of dying, they outlive normal cells and form abnormal ones
metastasis
when cancer cells travel to other parts of the body and grow and replace normal tissue
proto-oncogenes
causes cell divison (gas pedal)
tumor suppressor gene
slows down cell division (gas pedal stuck down)
chemotherapy
the use of drugs or medications to treat cancer
radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays, waves, or particles to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors
surgery
the most effective and fastest treatment for tumors
biologic treatment
uses the body’s immune system to lessen the side effects of cancer treatments
starving tumors
preventing the blood vessels from feeding on food and oxygen
gamete
sex cells (sperm and egg)
zygote
fertilized egg
diploid
zygote, 2n
haploid
sex cells, n
meiosis
cell reproduction that leads to gametes
independent assortment
homologous chromosomes line up randomly with their partners on the equator
crossing over
shuffling of genes
homologous chromosomes
pair of chromosomes, one from the egg and one from the sperm; they are the same size, have the same centromere location, and have the same genes
body cells
46 chromosomes, produced by mitosis
karyotype
picture of an individual’s chromosomes
trisomy
extra chromosome, ex. down syndrome
monosomy
missing a chromosome, ex. turners syndrome
mitosis
2 cells produced, chromosome number stays the same, genetically identical, produces body cells
meiosis
4 cells produced, chromosome number divides in half, genetically different, produces gametes