cell cycle study guide

asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself (genetically identical)

sexual reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism (genetically different)

efficiency
the smaller the cell size, the more efficient it is at taking in materials

double stranded chromosome
two sister chromatids attached by a centromere

interphase
the period of growth that prepares the cell for mitosis

mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division

g1
first step in interphase, period of cell growth

s
second step in interphase, dna is copied

g2
the final period of interphase during which many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced

prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromatin winds up into double stranded chromosomes, the spindle fibers form, and the centrioles move to opposite poles

metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, double stranded chromosomes split at their centromere and single stranded chromosomes move to opposite poles

telophase
the fourth phase of mitosis, the chromosomes spread out into a tangle of chromatin, the nuclear envelope reforms, the spindle fibers break down, and the nucleolus becomes visible

spindle fibers
help pull apart the cell during replication and are made up of micrtubules

cytokinesis in plant cells
a cell plate forms between the divided nuclei, forming a new membrane and a new cell wall

cytokinesis in animal cells
the cell membrane is drawn inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts, each part contains its own nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles

cancer cells
instead of dying, they outlive normal cells and form abnormal ones

metastasis
when cancer cells travel to other parts of the body and grow and replace normal tissue

proto-oncogenes
causes cell divison (gas pedal)

tumor suppressor gene
slows down cell division (gas pedal stuck down)

chemotherapy
the use of drugs or medications to treat cancer

radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays, waves, or particles to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors

surgery
the most effective and fastest treatment for tumors

biologic treatment
uses the body’s immune system to lessen the side effects of cancer treatments

starving tumors
preventing the blood vessels from feeding on food and oxygen

gamete
sex cells (sperm and egg)

zygote
fertilized egg

diploid
zygote, 2n

haploid
sex cells, n

meiosis
cell reproduction that leads to gametes

independent assortment
homologous chromosomes line up randomly with their partners on the equator

crossing over
shuffling of genes

homologous chromosomes
pair of chromosomes, one from the egg and one from the sperm; they are the same size, have the same centromere location, and have the same genes

body cells
46 chromosomes, produced by mitosis

karyotype
picture of an individual’s chromosomes

trisomy
extra chromosome, ex. down syndrome

monosomy
missing a chromosome, ex. turners syndrome

mitosis
2 cells produced, chromosome number stays the same, genetically identical, produces body cells

meiosis
4 cells produced, chromosome number divides in half, genetically different, produces gametes