Cell Biology – Structure ; Function of Organelles


Cell Wall
Outer layer of the cell that supports and protects the cell. Allows H2O, O2, and CO2 to pas into & out of the cell.

Cell Membrane
A thin, flexible barrier around the cell; controls what substances enter and leave the cell.

Nucleus
Contains DNA – The control center/brain of the cell.


Nuclear Membrane
Surrounds the nucleus; controls what goes in and out of the nucleus.

Cytoplasm
Gel-like fluid surrounding & protecting the cells organelles.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
A network of tubes that form a maze of passageways in which proteins ; other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum with ribosomes attached.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth E.R.)
Endoplasmic Reticulum that has no ribosomes.

Ribosome
Small bodies free or attached to E.R.; structure in which proteins are made.

Mitochondria
Bean-shaped organelle that breaks down sugar molecules to produce energy.

Vacuole
A sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area. Stores food, water, and waste.

Lysosome
Small ; round; breaks down/digests food particles and waste.

Chloroplast
Green ; oval shaped; captures sunlight energy ; converts it into chemical energy (sugar) in photosynthesis.

Cytoskeleton
Helps maintain cell shape .

Golgi Apparatus
Membrane-bound structure; modifies ; packages proteins for transport to other organelles.

Centriole
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only.