Celebrity endorsement vs non-celebrity endorsement
1.1 Research Background
A common marketing communication strategy in building brand image is celebrity endorsement. Public practitioners and advertisers believe that utilizing celebrity in advertisement will affect the effectiveness of brand recognition, brand recall as well as purchasing behaviour or intentions (Spry, 2011). Many studies have been gone through the topic of celebrity endorsement in recent years (e.g., Hakimi, 2011; Hung, 2011; Spry, 2011). Those studies have been studied regarding the “Influential of celebrity on young adults”, “Celebrity worship on purchase intentions” (Hung, 2011) and “Celebrity’s credibility on brand’s consumer based equity” (Spry, 2011).
“Joey Yung was being hired to endorse Sensa Cools herbal drink after being awarded as one of the Top Ten Hong Kong Artistes awards. One million US dollar worth for her advertising contract retrieved from inside sources report. She was so busy recently. What is more, she travelled to Phuket, Thailand for the advertisement shooting at an extravagant hotel” (Enesis Group, 2011). Such news regarding celebrity involvement in product endorsement frequently covered in Hong Kong entertainment news. In other words, Hong Kong audience has a high interest in the commercial activities of media celebrities (Chan, Ng and Luk., 2013).
According to Friedman and Friedman 1979, he defines that a celebrity is a person such as an actor, sportsman, entertainer and etc. They are different from the general public and are highly recognized by his or her achievements. From McCracken (1989), definition of a celebrity endorser is “any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing their names and image to the brand they advertised as to improve awareness of its brand and products.
Due to the emergence of quality lifestyles and health conscious, there is no doubt that transformation of Malaysian sports industry into a…