Westgard rule and Misc

Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:Vitamin A Night blindness Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:Vitamin B1 Beriberi Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:Vitamin C Scurvy Match the vitamin with the characteristic seen in a deficiency state:Vitamin D Rickets Match the […]

Wesloski Chemistry

Atom The basic particle from which all elements are made. chemical bond The force that holds two atoms together. Compound A pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined. element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means. Gas A state so fmatter with not […]

Week One – Chemistry

Cu Copper Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cl Chlorine C Carbon Ca Calcium Cd Cadmium Br Bromine B Boron Bi Bismuth Ba Barium As Arsenic Ar Argon Sb Antimony Al Aluminum

Week One Biochem Review II

Bond strength depends on four things: temperature, pressure, bond angle, & environment Water has ________ bonds among _________ on one water molecule & the __________ on another water molecule hydrogen; hydrogens; oxygen each water molecule can bind up to _______ other water molecules, through partial charges of hydrogen bonding 4 Water has a __________ bond […]

Week One Biochem Review

Our genetic code is made up of DNA and are expressed in the phenotype as a __________. protein What are the four characteristics of our DNA? Universal, unambiguous, redundant, non-overlapping & commaless The genetic code consists of bases, these bases comprise _________. codons The four bases are: A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine), and G […]

Week 1 – Chemistry

an aromatic must have (4n +2) pi electrons in benzene how are the carbons hybridise? sp2 which reaction is complicated by the outcome of hydrogen shift? Friedel-Craft Alkylation which reaction conditions are needed for the sulphonation of benzene? concentrated H2S04 containing SO3 under reflux for one hour why is benzene more stable than would be […]

weak acids and bases

HCl – Hydrochloric Acid Strong Acid (Strong Electrolytes) HNO3 – Nitric Acid Strong Acid (Strong Electrolytes) H2SO4 – Sulfuric Acid Strong Acid (Strong Electrolytes) HClO4 – Perchloric Acid Strong Acid (Strong Electrolytes) HBr – Hydrobromic Acid Strong Acid (Strong Electrolytes) HI – Hydroiodic Acid Strong Acid (Strong Electrolytes) LiOH – Lithium Hydroxide Strong Base (Strong […]

Waves, Energy in atoms, Quantum Numbers, Periodic Trends

Transverse Waves amplitude/crest is perpendicular to the origin  most common type of wave like at the ocean  Frequency   “Nu” HERTZ how many waves go through a point in one second frequency is like standing on a road and seeing how many cars pass by. ex. the frequency of cars on Rt. 8 is greater […]


C=C 1680 – 1600 C triple N 2260 -2220 C triple C 2260 – 2100 C=N 1650 – 1550 benzene/phenol 1600 and 1500-1430 C=O 1780 – 1650 C-O 1250 – 1050 C-N 1230 – 1020 O-H (alcohol) 3650 – 3200 O-H (carboxylic acid) 3300 – 2500 N-H 3500 – 3300 C-H 3300 – 2700

Water, solubility, molarity, and dilution

Name as many properties of water as u can *high surface tension*water is polar *hydrogen bonding*water is cohesive and adhesive*universal solvent*three states of matter*water has high boiling point*ice is less dense than water*expands when frozen*high specific heat,* high heat of vaporization water is most dense at what temperature? 4 degrees Celsius like dissolves _______ like […]

Water – Chemistry

What is the solute? The solid that dissolves into the solvent What is the solvent? The liquid part that has things dissolve into it What is the solution? A mixture of one substance dissolved in another What does dissolved mean? When a solute ‘disappears’ into the solvent Why is water a good solvent? Because many […]

Water – Chemistry

What is the compound of water and lead 2 nitrate? Pb(No3)2 Pb2+2NO–3 (aq) What is Potassium Iodide? KI K+I– Combine Lead and Potassium Iodide PbI2(s)+2KNO3(aq) Fe(OH)2 + NaCl   NaNo3 + Ni3(PO4)2   Both products soluble no reactions have taken place.  

Water Solubility

Alcohol 5-6 Phenol 5-6 Ehthers 3-4 Aldehyde 4-5 Ketone 4-5 Amine 7-8 Carboxyllic Acid 5-6 Ester 4-5 Amide 4-5 Urea,Carbonate, Carbamate 4-5 Thiols 1-2

Water Solubility Fxnal Groups

alcohol -OH 5–6 phenol 5–6 ether, -O- 3–4 aldehyde 4–5 ketone 4–5 amine, RNH2 7–8 Carboxyl, COOH 5–6 Ester 4–5 Amide, CONH2 4–5 Urea, RNHC=ONHR 4–5 Carbamate, ROC=ONHR 4–5 Carbonate, ROC=O-OR 4–5 Thiol, SH 1–2

Water Section C

Define a saturated solution.   Use the terms solvent and solute. A solution is saturated when the solvent (usually water) has dissolved the maximum amount of solute. If you want to dissolve a greater amount of salt in a solution, what should you do with the temperature?  Since salt is an ionic compound, then raising the […]

water cycle

EVAPORATION when liquid turns into gas and goes into the atmosphere CONDENSTAION vapor changes to liquid n cools in the atmosphere creates clouds precipitation when rain or ice falls to earth through the vasscular system to the atmosphere transpiration passage of water through a plant from roots SURFACE WATER streams lakes oceans rivers GROUND WATER […]

Water and its Properties

what shape does a water molecule have? a simple triatomic what type of bond bonds the oxygen molecule of a water atom with the hydrogen atoms? covalent bonds what is the bond angle of a simple triatomic structure? 105 degrees is a water molecule polar very what charge does the oxygen atom have in a […]

WashU Chemistry Review

Precision A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another. Accuracy Refers to how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or true value. Significant Figures: Digits that are significant:   Non-zero digits are always significant. Any zeros between two non-zero digits are significant. A final zero or trailing zeros in the decimal […]

V. The Periodic Law

Periodic Law when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a pattern in their physical and chemical properties. Periodic Table an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that the elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group Alkali Metals the elements of group […]

vsper formulas/shapes


VSEPR – Chemistry

2 linear 3 trigonal planar 4 tetrahedral 5 trigonal bipyrimidal 6 octahedral AX2E bent AX3E trigonal pyrimidal AX2E2 bent AX4E seesaw AX3E2 tshape Ax2E3 linear AX5E square pyrimidal AX4E2 square planar AX3E3 tshape

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