Italian and German unification cause and effect

The young Italy is formed Momentum is built towards liberating Italy from Austrian rule Prussia seeks to have domination in affairs of German confederation The Zollverein is created The seven weeks’ war takes place The German confederation is officially dissolved France assists the Italians in driving the Austrians out Nice and savoy became part of […]

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Italian Italiano Future Tense

vedrò I will see vedremo we will see vedrai you (fam.) will see vedrete you (plur.) will see vedrà he/she will see vedranno they will see andrò I will go andrai you (fam.) will go andremo we will go andrete you (plur.) will go andrà he/she will go andranno they will go capirò I will […]

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Italian Unification Historiography

1848 revolutions Farmer; ‘the 1848-9 revolutions changed everything’ Trevelyn; ‘the turning point at which history failed to turn’ Farmer; ‘given the strength of local loyalties and bitter regional antagonisms, the notion of a united Italy seemed a political fantasy’ Force Farmer; 1848 proved ‘romantic idealism could not succeed against the existing order unless supported by […]

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Italian Musical Terms

largo very slow adagio slow andante medium slow, walking pace moderato moderate allegro fast presto very fast pianissimo very soft piano soft mezzo piano medium soft mezzo forte medium loud forte loud fortissimo very loud crescendo gradually louder decrescendo gradually softer accelerando gradually faster ritardando gradually slower ritenuto suddenly slower con moto with motion meno […]

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Italian Music Theory Terms

A tempo return to the original tempo Accelerando increase the speed Adagio slow tempo, between largo (slower) and andante Allegretto lively tempo, but not too fast; between andante (slower) and allegro Allegro fast tempo, from Italian wired meaning cheerful Andante moderate tempo, from Italian word meaning walking Assai much or very Attacca continue directly into […]

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Italian Terms – Tempo and Dynamics

presto very fast allegro lively and fast moderato medium tempo andante walking speed adagio slow largo very slow; broad accelerando gradually faster ritardando slowing down crescendo gradually getting louder decrescendo gradually getting softer piano soft forte loud mezzo piano moderately soft mezzo forte moderately loud fortissimo very loud pianissimo very soft accent Various accents pause […]

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Italian verbs that take Indirect objects

chiedere to ask dare to give dire to say domandare to ask insegnare to teach mandare to send offrire to offer parlare to speak portare to bring, to carry, to wear rispondere to respond scrivere to write spiegare to explain telefonare to call consigliare to reccomend mostrare to show preparare to prepare regalare to give […]

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Italian Musical Terms – Dynamics and Moods

calando Literally “quietening,” this means becoming slower and softer. crescendo Literally “growing,” this means becoming louder. decrescendo Literally “shrinking,” this means becoming softer. diminuendo Literally “dwindling,” this means becoming softer. forte Literally “strong,” this means loud. fortissimo Literally “very strong,” this means very loud. mezzo forte Literally “half-strong,” this means moderately loud. piano Literally “gentle,” […]

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Italian Negative Expressions

non…affato not at all non…mai never non…niente nothing non…nessuno nobody non neanche not even non..piu not any more non…ancora not yet non…ne…ne neither…nor

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History; Major People of the Italian Renaissance

Pico Della Mirandola “to [man] it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.” Francesco Petrarch the father of humanism, poet and scholar, assembled a library of Greek and roman manuscripts in monasteries and churches Medici Family Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, Florence was a city-state Cosimo […]

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Italian articles of clothing

il vestito dress la camicia shirt la maglietta T shirt i pantaloni pants la maglia sweatshirt il maglione sweater la cravatta tie la camicetta blouse la gonna skirt i jeans jeans il capoto coat l’impermeabile raincoat la giacca jacket il parka parka il capello hat i guanti gloves il pantaloncini shorts la sciarpa scarf il […]

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World History Section 10.1

Humanism A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements Humanities study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, that were taught in ancient Greece and Rome Petrarch Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the […]

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Italian Unification – IB HL History

What year was the Congress of Vienna? 1815 What was the leading power at the congress of Vienna? Austria Who was the diplomatic figure-head of Austria? Metternich What were the results of the Congress of Vienna 1815? Re-creation of Kingdom of Naples, Papal States, Central Duchies, Lombardy, Venetia, Kingdom of Piedmont Name five ‘Liberal’ goals […]

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AP Euro Chapter 25 Italian Unification

What changes did the Age of Nationalism bring about? 1.) Peace + Stability – War + Rapid Change 2.) Romanticism – Realism 3.) Hard Economic times – Great times + Proseperity What were the causes of the Crimean War? 1.) Russia invades Ottoman Empire in 1853 to get Dardanelles (claims Christians are being unjustly persecuted […]

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Italian Body Parts

l’orrechio ear l’occhio eye il naso nose la bocca mouth i denti teeth il ditto finger la mano hand il piede feet il braccio arm la gamba legs la testa head la lingua tounge lo stomaco stomach il corpo body i capelli hair la faccia face il viso face le labbra lips la gola throat […]

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Italian & Northern Renaissance

Humanist People who specialized in study the humanities. Included studying grammer, history, poetry, and rhetoric. Perspective An art technique that makes different objects look smaller in the background and it was to create an illusion of depth on a flat canvas. Renaissance Rebirth – was both a philosophical and artistic movement. Movement following the Middle […]

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Seven ways to say "the" in Italian

Il Masculine, ends with (o), and starts with a constonant La Femine, ends with (a), and starts with a constonant L’ Femine or masculine,ends with (a) or (o), and starts always with a vowel Lo Masculine,ends with (o), and starts with z or s followed by a constonant Gli Plural, Masculine, starts with a z […]

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Italian body parts (Irregular Plural)

la mano (hand) le mani (hands) il dito (finger) le dita (fingers) il braccio (arm) le braccia (arms) l’orecchio (ear) le orrecchie (ears) il ginocchio (knee) le ginocchia (knees) il labbro (lip) le labbra (lips)

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Italian Unification

What were the four forces hindering Italian unity? 1. Political divisions 2. Opposition of Austria 3. Opposition of the Papacy 4. Discord among Nationalists What were the four political divisions of pre-unified Italy and who controlled them? 1. Sardinia-Piedmont (Italian control) 2. Lombardy + Venetia (Austrian control) 3. Duchies of Parma, Modena, and Tuscany + […]

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Chapter 8: Italian Unification

State that led Italian unification Piedmont Sardinia 7 Reasons why Piedmont-Sardinia was leader of unification 1. It was the most powerful state 2. It provided military strength and diplomatic ties to France; however largely motivated by territorial expansionism 3. Became the national standard bearer after 1848, even if defeated by Austria, as it had dared […]

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ABRSM Music Theory Grade 5 (Italian Terms)

Estinto As soft as possible Agitato Agitated Alla misura In strict time Doppio movimento Twice the movement Incalzando Getting quicker Lunga Long Lunga pausa Long pause Misura Measure Rubato With some freedom of time Senza misura In free time Smorzando Dying away in tone and speed Tosto Swift, rapid Volante Flying, fast Forza Force Marcato […]

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