Acetylcholine MADE FROM: Dietary choline Acetylcholine MECHANISM: Excitatory & Inhibitory Acetylcholine LOCATION: Autonomic Nervous System Motor Neurons CNS Acetylcholine FUNCTION: Visceral function Movement Memory Acetylcholine DISORDER: Myasthenia gravis Alzheimer’s Disease (too little ACh) –> Plaques & Tangles! Beta-amyloid Plaques Neurofibrillary Tangles Glutamate MADE FROM: Amino Acid Glutamate MECHANISM: Excitatory Glutamate LOCATION: Most abundant Neurotransmitter in […]

Neuro Chemistry

neurochemistry focuses on the basic chemical composition and processes of the nervous system neuropharmacology is the study of compounds that selectively affect the nervous system EP or adrenaline chemical messenger that acts as a hormone to mobilize the body for fight or flight during times of stress and as a NT in the CNS NE […]


Acetylcholine 1. Pontomesencephalic Tegmentum 2. Basal Forebrain (Nucleus Basalis of Meynert) and Medial Septum Norepinephrine 1. Locus Ceruleus in pons 2. Lateral Tegmentum of pons 3. Lateral/ventrolateral tegmentum of medulla Serotonin 1. Raphe nucleus of brainstem 2. Rostral Raphe: dorsal raphe-> ascending projections 3. Caudal Raphe: Raphe pallidus and raphe magnus-> descending projections Histamine Tuberomammillary […]

PCOL Exam 2: Neurotransmission & Basic Neurochemistry

GABA meaning Gamma amino-butyric acid Major inhibitory transmitter in brain GABA synthesis Enzyme=glutamic acid decarboxylase COOH removed from glutamic acid to make GABA GABA inactivation Reuptake=major means of inactivation Broken down by GABA-transaminase Catabolism blocked by gamma vinyl GABA GABA receptor subtypes 2 receptor subtypes A=ligand-gated ion channel B=GPCR GABA-A mechanism increase in membrane permeability […]

Anxiety disorders:Neurobiology, neurochemistry and treatment

What is the role of the amygdala? emotions, memory, decision making The amygdala receives inputs from which areas of the brain? sensory cortex and sensory thalamus (and hippocampus) The amygdala sends outputs to which areas involved in fear response? (3) lateral hypothalamus = sympathetic activation; tachycardia, pupil dilation, blood pressure elevation ventral tegmental area: locus […]

Basic Neurochemistry

neurotransmitter characteristics 1) vesicle storage 2) Ca dependent release 3) interaction with postsynaptic target *interaction with target should illicit uniform response neuromodulator almost meets all of criteria of neurotransmitter but some discrepancy have slow and long lasting effects forming vesicle in presynaptic terminal ex. choline taken in through membrane, form ACh, then put in vesicle […]


Dendrites – Multiple per cell forming arbors, non/spiny; clustered near soma; highly plastic – Organise, respond, synthesise inputs to neuron DNA nucleus contains the DNA (DNA the same in every nucleus).. Chromatin determines cell expression ie. what gene is what Process of DNA –> protein DNA transcribed to mRNA mRNA moves to cytoplasm in the […]

Neurochemistry Concepts

what are the three protective features of the brain? the blood brain barrier, the bony skull, and the cerebral spinal fluid, which provides cushioning for the brain what is an example of a leak channel potassium leak channels, which allow potassium out of the cell with the concentration gradient and help maintain the membrane potential […]


synthesis of Ach Acetyl CoA + choline via choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) Elimination of Ach via acetylcholinesterase to choline and acetate (choline is re-used) synthesis of dopamine tyrosine –> DOPA via tyrosine hydroxylase –> dopamine by decarbosylase elimination of dopamine via transport into presynaptic element and then into the surrounding glial cells. within the glia the […]

Neurochemistry & Psychopharmacology (Lecture Notes)

acetylcholine synthesis: enzyme + choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholenzyme A+choline+acetyltransferases breakdown: acetylcholinesterase breaks it back down receptors: nicotinic receptors – bound by nicotine, found in brain and muscle cells muscarinic receptors – bound by muscarine neurochemicals neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neuro-hormones, neuromodulators neurotransmitters chemical signals that are used to talk from one neuron to (commonly) another neuron neuropeptides short […]

(3) (a) Explanations For Nicotine Addiction: Brain

AO1 Desensitisation hypothesis- Role of nAChRs; Desensitisation; Effect of dopamine Nicotine regulation model- Resensitisation of neurons leads to upregulation, Upregulation leads to withdrawal syndrome, Chronic desensitisation increases tolerance. Desensitisation hypothesis 1. Role of nAChRs- dopamine-producing neurons have acetylcholine receptors that also respond to nicotine. 2. Desensitisation- when nicotine binds to a nAChR… a) neuron is […]

Fundamentals of Neurochemistry

Organization of the nervous system CENTRAL PERIPHERAL (divided into autonomic and somatic) Autonomic nervous system Part of the PNS Divided into sympathetic, enteric, and parasympathetic nervous systems Somatic nervous system Part of the PNS Associated with muscles and voluntary control of the movements 5 characteristics of neurotransmitters 1. Chemical must be synthesized and stored in […]

Neurochemistry and Drug Class Sheets (Primary Function and Examples-WG)

What is the primary function of ACh? muscle control, memory formation, sensory response Give an example(s) of what ACh does? decreases HR, increases secretions, increases memory, increases muscle contraction What is the primary funciton of Serotonin? intestinal movement control, mood regulation, apetite, sleep, muscle control Give an example(s) of what Sertonin does? increases happiness, mood […]


Neurotransmitter The function of a/an ______ depends on what region it innervates and its receptor Acetylcholine Attention and memory; N.trans. Basal Nucleus Where acetylcholine is made Acetylcholine Sugar + Choline from Lecithin Norepinephrine Arousal/Wake up; N. trans. Norepinephrine Regulates communication between brain and body to control metabolism Locus Coeruleus Where norepinephrine is made Tyrosine Base […]

EXAM 3: Neurochemistry

Increased release induces epilepsy aspartate & glutamate Classified as an excitatory neurotransmitter aspartate & glutamate Classified as an inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA & glycine Classified as a peptide neurotransmitter endorphins & substance P Classified as a catecholamine (NOT acetylcholine!) dopamine, epinephrine & norepinephrine Made primarily in the brainstem substantial nigra dopamine Made by motor neurons acetylcholine […]

Neurochemistry I

Three Characteristics of Neurotransmitters Stored in Presynaptic Vesicles Released in Ca²⁺-dependent manner Capable of interacting with a membrane-bound receptor to produce an effect Small Molecule Nuerotransmitters Acetylcholine, Amino Acids and Amino Acid Derivatives Two Types of NT’s and EM Appearance SMALL MOLECULE – Appear as clear vesicles PEPTIDE – Appear as Large, dense vesicles Biosynthesis […]

Neurochemistry on behaviour

Neurotransmitter Is a chemical released from a neurone, it travels across the synapses and is received by another neurone Excitatory Trigger the receiving neurone to send an impulse and stimulate the brain Excitatory effects Effect our behaviour that is associated with motivation, high levels of dopamine are associated with schizophrenia Inhibitory Stop the receiving neurone […]

Part 3 : Neurochemistry

Neurochemistry Any chemical that are in the brain. Ex) Myeline, cell membrane, etc. Neurotransmitter A chemical molecules that transmits messages between neurons. Otto Loewi & Sir Henry Dale Two scientists who won the Nobel prize in 1936 for discovering the first neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Frog Heart Experiment An experiment conducted by Otlo Loewi and Sir Henry […]

Neurochemistry Terms

what is neuroplasticity the brain’s ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between dendrites; changes in the spine/thorn morphology of the dendrites are associated with learning and memory. What is the function of the hypothallamus? Responsible for regulating basic biological needs: hunger, thirst, temperature control what is the function of the cerebrum? aka the […]

Neurochemical Transmission

Parts of the standard neuron Inputs, dendrites, soma, myelinated axon, nodes, terminal, synapse Where are the neurotransmitters held? In the synaptic terminal What is exocytosis dependent on and why? Ca2+ concentration – calcium ions cause vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane Mechanism of exocytosis Vesicles dock with specialized proteins attached to the inner surface […]


acetylcholine synthesized from DIETARY choline, foods high in choline are eggs, meats, beans, green veggies motor neurons of cranial nerves do what.. innervate muscles of the head and neck motor neurons of the spinal nerves do what.. innervate muscle of the body myasthenia gravis autoimmune disorder, causes muscle weakness when acetylcholine neurons die what happens? […]

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