Chemistry Flashcards

z- Test #4 Lab Measurements

Sodium You need a heparinized plasma tube (green top tube) or serum must be separated from the cells; NO HemolysisUse ISE (ion-selective electrode) to measure the amount of electrolyte present Chloride Serum preferred NO hemolysis seperated from cells no contact with air because of CO2 and bicarbonate interferences Coulometric or Amperometric Titration: based on titration, […]

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z- Test #4 Electrolytes

Electrolytes Molecules that become ionized in solution such as– Na+, K+, Cl- & CO2 Cations negatively charged ions that moves toward the Cathode Anions positively charged ions that moves toward the Anode Sodium (Na+) -major extracellular cation-responsible for half of the osmolality of the plasma-sodium reabsorption in the distal tubules occurs w/ aid of Aldosterone […]

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z- Test #4 Disorders

Hyponatremia (hypoaldosteronism)? Deleptional (Addison’s Disease)• Due to diet (potassium azide )• Excessive Sweat• Prolonged vomiting• Persistent diarrhea• Deficiency in absorption• Net loss of Na+? Dilutional• Retention of H2O• Pregnancy• Edema• the amount of sodium you have doesn’t change but the water volume increases Hypernatremia ? Net gain of Na+ in plasma• During sweating• Vomiting• Diarrhea• […]

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z- Pentose Phosphate Pathway

G6P to 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone to 6-Phosphogluconate 6-phosphoglucono lactonase 6-Phosphogluconate to Ru5P 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6P to 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone Side product: NADP+ –> NADPH + H+ 6-phosphoglucono lactonase 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone to 6-Phosphogluconate Side product: H20 –> H+ 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 6-Phosphogluconate to Ru5P Side product: NADP+ –> NADPH + H+

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z- minerals and bone metabolism (ch-38)

Calcium Functions Calmodulin (made up of 4 Ca2+ ions) – it activates adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesteraseCalcium binds to a protein to form Troponin – found in cardiac muscleCell communicationControls endocrine gland secretionNeeded for blood coagulation Calmodulin (made up of 4 Ca2+ ions) – it activates adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase Phosphate Function Part of the cell […]

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z- Glycolysis and Fructose metabolism Enzymes

Hexokinase Glucose to G6P(Mg2+ ATP –> ADP) and Fructose to F6P Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) G6P to F6P Phosphofructo kinase (PFK) F6P to FBP(Mg2+ ATP –> ADP)Main regulation step Adolase FBP to GAP + DHAP Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) DHAP to GAP Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) GAP to 1,3 BPG(NAD+ + pi -> NADH + H+) Phosphoglycerate Kinase […]

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Zero Rules (chemistry)

zeros in between other numbers are ALWAYS significant zeros in front of numbers are NEVER significant (hold place) zeros in scientific notation are ALWAYS significant zeros at end of number after decimal ARE significant to show a guess or give information (not just place holders) zeros at end of number before decimal are MAY OR […]

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Zeltner Periodic Table

mendeleev He’s given credit for making the first periodic table. Atomic Mass Average mass of all isotopes of that element. Atomic Number The modern periodic table is aranged in order of increasing the Atomic Number. elements A substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means periodically The table […]

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z-Test #1 – Chemistry

Describe Southern Blotting 1. Gel electrophoresis of DNA fragments2. NaOH denature and blot into nitrocellulose filter3.Incubate the nitrocellulose bound DNA with 32P labeled DNA or RNA of specific sequences complimentary to DNA4. Wash unbound probe away Sucrose Hetero: aGlucose 1->2 bFructose Lactose Hetero: bGalactose 1->4 bGlucose Cellulose Homo: bGlucose 1->4 bGlucose Chitin Homo: bNAcetylGlucose 1->4 […]

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z-Test 2 Protein

?-1 Band Antitrypsin (AAT)Acid glycoprotein (AAG)Lipoprotein A (Apolipoprotein A)Fetoprotein (AFP) ?-2 Band Haptoglobin (HAP)Ceruloplasmin (CER)Macroglobulin (AMG) ?-1 Band Transferrin (TRF)Hemopexin (HPX)Lipoprotein B (Apolipoprotein B)C4 ?-2 Band FibrinogenC3Microglobulin ?- Band ImmunoglobulinsC-reactive protein (CRP) ?-1 Band Antitrypsin: Makes up 90% of the alpha bandFunction: neutralizes lysosomal elastases during phagocytosisUses: evaluates lung and liver diseaseAcid glycoprotein:Has a large […]

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z-Test 2 Carbs

Cortisol Source: Adrenal CortexIncreases gluconeogenesisIncreases plasma glucose Epinephrine (Adrenaline) Source: Adrenal MedullaIncrease glycogenolysisIncrease plamsa glucose Thyroxine (T4) Source: ThyroidIncrease glycogenolysisIncrease plasma glucose Glucose Hyperglycemia: >140mg/dLHypoglycemia:

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z-Test 1 Slides

Osmolality Moles of solute/kg solvent Flame emission Spectroscopy lithium=red, sodium=yellow, potassium = violet, magnesium =blue. Red and Gold top tubes Serum tube1-3 minutes blood will clotAfter 3 minutes centrifuge (you will only see two layers)Collect top layer: serum which contains everything except coagulation factors Lavendar and Pink top tubes plasma tubeContains ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA binds […]

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z-Test 1 Definitions

Selectivity Analyzers that can analyze individual test on a given sample and multiple tests at the same time. Discreetness Ability to dispense and mix each sample with its respective reagent for each test in a separate reaction cup. Continuous flow Continuous pumping of fluid to avoid air bubbles. Batching Running the same text on a […]

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z-PCAT – CHEM

E = hc/(lambda) Find energy with planck’s constant, the speed of light and the wavelength rate = k[A]^x [B]^y rate reaction A = Ao -(ko)(t) Zero order rate reaction k = M/sec At = Ao E^-kt First order k = 1/sec rate = k [A] [B] Second order rate reaction k = 1/M sec kc= […]

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z-Ch.4 Amino Acids

Alanine -CH3 Ala A nonpolar Glycine -H Gly G nonpolar Valine -CH(CH3)2 Val V nonpolar Leucine -CH2-CH(CH3)2 Leu L nonpolar Isoleucine -CH(CH3)-CH2-CH3 Ile I nonpolar Methionine -CH2-CH2-S-CH3 Met M nonpolar Proline [image] Pro P nonpolar Phenylalanine -CH2-C6H5 Phe F nonpolar Tryptophan [image] Trp W nonpolar Serine -CH2-OH Ser S uncharged polar Theronine -CH(OH)-CH3 Thr T […]

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Year 9 IGCSE Key Terms

acid rain rain with a pH less than 5.6; acid rain has been made more acidic than normal rain because sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides have dissolved in it; acid rain causes damage to buildings made from limestone, damages metal structures, kills fish, damages leaves in trees so they photosynthesise less alkanes a homologous series […]

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Year 10 IGCSE Key Terms

acid any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H+, when dissolved in water acid rain rain with a pH less than 5.6; acid rain has been made more acidic than normal rain because sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides have dissolved in it; acid rain causes damage to buildings made from limestone, damages metal structures, kills fish, damages […]

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Y10 Module 8 Key Words

Alcohol A family of chemicals made by fermenting sugars Alloy A metal mixture, often with special properties Binge Drinking Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol over a short space of time with the intention of getting completely drunk Breathability Clothing that lets the water vapour from sweat escape has this Carbon Fibre Fibres made from carbon […]

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Y10 Module 7 Key Words

Acid Rain rain with dissolved pollutants such as sulphur dioxide that makes the rain acidic Atmosphere the layer of gas that surrounds the Earth Bias(on the internet) where an unbalanced account of a problem is given to push forward one point of view over another Bio-fuels a fuel mad up from living things-usually from plants […]

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Y10 Module 6 Key Words

carbohydrates substances that are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. caustic soda the common name for sodium hydroxide citric acid a weak acid found naturally in oranges and lemons. combustion burning crust the rocky outer layer of the earth decomposition a reaction in which a substance breaks down into two or more new substances dehydrated […]

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Y10 Module 5 Key Words

alkali metal an element found in group 1 of the periodic table. alkali metals include lithium, sodium and potassium alkaline a substance that turns universal indicator paper blue and has a pH greater than 7 alloy a mixture of metals or non-metals analyse to study a substance carefully to find out which chemicals it contains […]

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