Busman SAC2B

A policy is an official set of guidelines for behaviour of employees in specific situations.
A procedure is a series of actions enabling a policy to be put into practice.
Need for policy development
New policies are developed or revised as a result of pressure or changes in the external environment.
Policy development process
1. Identify issue
2. Research the issue (visit orgs, external consultants)
3. Stakeholders input (focus groups, surveys)
4. Policy development (ensure legal compliance)
5. Draft policy is shared (feedback from stakeholders)
6. Approval for policy implementation
7. Evaluate policy
Management style
Management style is a consistent pattern of behaviour adopted by a manager. Managers use their style to influence the performance of employees towards achieving organisational objectives.
Situational management/approach
Situational management/approach refers to managers using a collections of styles and adapting these styles to a particular situation.
Autocratic management style
An autocratic management style is one where the manager determines the policies and tasks of the team with little or no discussion, or input from employees.
Characteristics – autocratic management style
– Centralised decision-making
– One-way communication → top-down
– Task-oriented
– Decisions made in interest of organisation, not people
Advantages – autocratic management style
– Very clear hierarchy
– More efficient and productive
– Clear lines of communication (top-down)
– Orderly and controlled situation
– Most experienced is the one making the decisions
Disadvantages – autocratic management style
– Ideas cannot be shared because team is not consulted
– Employees are not respected or valued
– Job satisfaction low, people don’t have responsibility
– Motivation is low
Persuasive management style
A persuasive management style is one where the manager holds all authority and makes all decisions, but attempts to sell the decisions made to employees.
Characteristics – persuasive management style
– Centralised decision making
– Use one way communication
– Task oriented; but spend more time with the team to convince them – more people-oriented
– Make decisions in interest of org rather than individual
Advantages – persuasive management style
– Team members feel more valued than in autocratic
– People are clear about their tasks and roles
– Clear lines of communication
– Efficiency and productivity
– People are more “on-board”
Disadvantages – persuasive management style
– Still no teamwork
– Employees’ ideas not valued
– Low motivation/satisfaction because low involvement
Consultative management style
A consultative management style is one where the manager listens to team members before they make the decision.
Characteristics – consultative management style
– More decentralised method of decision-making
– Use two-way communication
– Still task oriented but they include input from people so they are more people focused
Advantages – consultative management style
– Many ideas generated to solve issues
– Employee involvement – satisfied/engaged/motivated
– Staff can be experts in the areas they provide feedback to, so decisions are better
Disadvantages – consultative management style
– Time consuming to talk to people
– Less efficient
– The final decision can mean that some ideas are overlooked, which causes ill-feeling among staff
Participative management style
A participative management style is one where the manager unites with staff to make decisions together. Employees are encouraged to take an active role in decision-making.
Characteristics – participative management style
– Decentralised decision-making, authority is delegated
– Two-way communication
– People-oriented – development of employees
– Making decisions in interests of people, not just org
– Active managers
Advantages – participative management style
– High levels of satisfaction/motivation, people involved
– More accepted decisions because multiple viewpoints
– A lot of discussion/communication → better teamwork
– Better manager-employee relationships
Disadvantages – participative management style
– Time consuming in reaching outcomes → discussions
– Compromise involved; therefore, decisions not best for the organisation
– Conflict can arise due to different viewpoints
Laissez-faire management style
The laissez-faire management style is one where employees assume total responsibility for, and control of, workplace operations.
Characteristics – laissez-faire management style
– Decentralised
– Two-way communication
– People-oriented (almost completely)
– Decisions made in relation to people rather than org
Advantages – laissez-faire management style
– High satisfaction and motivation
– If team self manages, it can be highly effective
– Flatter structure, higher communication/cooperation
Disadvantages – laissez-faire management style
– Potential risk of team going completely off-track as a result of little control
– Employees can take advantage of the low control
– Informal leaders try to emerge
Management skills
Management skills are capabilities that mangers need to perform their roles effectively.
Communication involves the ability to transfer information from a sender to a receiver, and to listen to feedback.
–> Email, posters, body language
Delegation is the transfer of authority and responsibility from a manager to an employee to carry out specific activities.
Negotiation skills involve the ability to resolve a dispute or to produce a satisfactory agreement on a course of action.
Time management
Time management involves managers recognising that time is finite and putting in the subsequent strategies put into place to deal with that.
–> Prioritising, deadlines, reduce procrastination
Stress management
Stress management involves the ability to maintain appropriate levels of stress for themselves as well as employees.
–> Physical exercise, take breaks
Emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence is the skill of identifying, assessing and managing the emotions of self and others.
Four componenets of EQ
• Empathy → can put themselves into other people’s situations; see from others perspectives. Understand their impact on others. Sensitive to other people’s emotional state. Ability to read others emotions.
• Handling relationships → ability to enter into interpersonal relationships that are satisfying. Form connections with others. Ability to work through conflict productively and to collaborate.
• Self-awareness → ability to know what your emotional state is like. Name your emotional states and to manage/control them. Ability to alter undesirable states.
• Self-motivation → motivation comes from within, not external. Can generate motivation when they need to achieve things.
Team building/collaboration
Team building/collaboration refers to a group of employees working together effectively to complete a task and achieve a desired outcome.
Decision-making and problem solving
Decision-making and problem solving is when managers make choices from available alternatives in order to overcome obstacles.
7-step decision-making and problem solving process
1. Identify problem
2. Establish a desired outcome
3. Analyse the problem
4. Generate alternative solutions
5. Evaluate alternatives
6. Implement decision
7. Evaluate results
Ethics and social responsibility
Ethics and social responsibility in the workplace refers to applying moral standards to behaviour and decision-making, as well as understanding the obligations a business has over and above its legal responsibilities to the wellbeing of employees and customers, shareholders and the community as well as the environment.
EXAMPLE of ethics and social responsibility: NAB
NAB Forex (Foreign exchange)
– Termination practices to remove unethical employees
– New policies → zero tolerance
– Control systems → new financial control systems
– Risk management
– Recruitment of new ethical managers

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