Brinkley’s a Survey of Us History Chapter 29: the Cold War

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1 ) Beginnings of the Cold War
a ) Beginnings of Soviet-American Tensions

I ) Rivalry emerged b/c of different visions of postwar universe * US foresaw universe where states got rid of traditional beliefs. such as military confederations. and used an international organisation which would decide differences * Soviet Union sought to command countries of strategic influence * Vaguely similar to traditional European balance of power * Churchill besides envisioned this

B ) Wartime Diplomacy

I ) Tensions began in 1943 b/c of Allied refusal to open 2nd forepart through invasion of France * at Tehran Conference. Roosevelt and Stalin formed good relationship * Stalin agreed to assist US in Pacific one time war with Germany was over in exchange for the gap of the 2nd forepart in France * But. difference over administration of Poland showed marks of future dissensions being clearly seeable * Roosevelt and Churchill were willing to give Soviet Union some of Poland. but wanted the Polish govt in expatriate in GB to take control once more * Stalin wanted pro communist govt to take control degree Celsius ) Yalta

I ) Meeting of Big Three at Yalta in 1945

* In bend for Stalin’s promise to assist the US out in the Pacific. Roosevelt promised Stalin land back that was lost in the Russo Japanese War
* Besides led to be after to make United Nations
* General Assembly and Security Council
* Every member was recognized in the General Assembly
* In Security Counsel. there were 5 lasting representatives ( USA. GB. France. Soviet Union. China ) . each of which would hold veto power two ) There was besides a batch of dissension



* One was over future of Polish govt ( independent and democratic vs. Communist ) * Stalin finally agreed to leting an unspecified figure of democratic Poles into the govt and consented to keep “free and unchained elections” on an unspecified hereafter day of the month * Elections did non take topographic point for more than 40 old ages * Another was over the hereafter of Germany

* US wanted a reconstructed and reunited Germany * Stalin wanted heavy reparations and to guarantee a lasting taking apart of the state * eventually agreed to committee and each Ally given German “zone” * determination on reparations would be decided at a future committee * and at an unspecified day of the month. Germany would be reunited ( but there was no understanding on how the reunion would happen * as for the hereafter of the remainder of Europe. the conference produced a murky agreement that the constitutions of govt’s “broadly representative of all democratic elements” and “responsible to the will of the people” * Soviet readings of the agreements differed aggressively from those of the Anglo-American reading * In the hebdomads following. Roosevelt watched with turning dismay as the Soviets raised pro communist govts all over cardinal and eastern Europe and refused to do the alterations to Poland as he promised

2 ) The Collapse of the Peace
a ) The Failure of Potsdam

I ) After Roosevelt’s decease in April 1945. new Pres Truman decided US needed to “Get Tough” w Soviets to honour Yalta agreements * Truman had small purchase to oblige the Soviet Union to listen to him. therefore he was forced to settle with small two ) Potsdam Conference in July ended w/ Stalin receiving increased land w/ new Polish-German boundary line * US refused to let German reparations from other Allies’ zones to travel to Soviets but US recognized new communist Polish govt under Soviet influence * Allied zones would unify as one state ( West Germany ) and be separate from Soviet’s portion of Germany ( East Germany ) B ) The China Problem

I ) US had vision of unfastened universe “policed” by major powers * But vision troubled by unpopular and corrupt Chinese govt under Chiang Kai-shek ( supported by US assistance during civil war ) who battled Communists under Mao Zedong * By 1945. Communist controlled ? of the population

* Because US didn’t want to back up Communists. they were forced to back up Chiang two ) B/c Kai-shek govt sure to prostration. US sought to make new. Pro-West Japan by promoting industrial development. lift trade limitations * Vision of unfastened. united universe was giving manner to an credence of a divided universe with a strong. pro American domain of influence degree Celsius ) The Containment Doctrine

I ) US no longer sought “open” universe but instead set out to “contain” Soviet enlargement * As Stalin tried to win control over the critical sea routed in the Mediterranean ( Turkey ) . communist forces threatened to subvert govt in Greece * new Truman Doctrine sought assistance for those forces ( $ 400 million ) in Turkey and Greece opposing take-over of Communist forces under Soviet influence * its footing was that the US should “support free people who are defying attempted subjection by armed minorities or outside pressure” * it worked. Soviet force per unit area taken away of Turkey and Greek govt regained control

vitamin D ) The Marshall Plan

I ) Second of State George Marshall 1947 program to supply assistance to all Eur states ( for human-centered grounds. to reconstruct and guarantee it could go self reliant once more. to make markets for US goods. and to beef up Pro-US govts against Communists ) * this included the Soviet Union. but was rejected by them and their Eastern orbiters * was accepted by 16 Western European states

* April 1948. Congress approved creative activity of the Economic Cooperation Administration to administrate the Marshall Plan * channeled one million millions of $ to help economic resurgence * by terminal of 1950. European industrial production had risen 64 % . communist strength in member states declined. and chances for US trade revived vitamin E ) Mobilization at Home

I ) US maintained wartime military degrees. established Atomic Energy Commission to go on atomic research * Congress approved new military bill of exchange and revived the Selective Service System * Nuclear arms became cardinal topographic point in US armory

* In 1950. Truman admin. Approved the development of the new H bomb * A atomic arm far more powerful than anything the US used in WWII

two ) National Security Act of 1947 reshaped major military and diplomatic establishments * created Department of Defense to supervise and unite all armed services * created National Security Council ( NSC ) in White House was created * would regulate foreign and military policy

* created Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) to roll up information * As Cold War progressed. they besides engaged in secret in political and military operations on behalf of American ends f ) The Road to NATO

I ) Truman merged German “Western zones” into the West German republic * Stalin responded on June 24. 1948 by obstructing Western Berlin * Truman. unwilling to put on the line war by militarily disputing the encirclement. responded w/ airlift to re-supply dwellers * In spring of 1949. Stalin lifted the now uneffective encirclement * Federal Republic became govt of west Germany. Democratic Republic of east two ) To beef up military place US and Western Eur states in April 1949 created North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) as confederation to protect all members against menace of Soviet invasion ( 12 states agreed to take portion ) * Attack against one would be attack against all

* Countries would supply a standing military force in Europe in instance of Soviet onslaught * Soviet Union and Communists responded by in 1955 organizing similar Warsaw Pact g ) Reassessing Cold War Policy

I ) 1949 saw Soviet Union explode foremost atomic arm and prostration of Patriots in China to Mao’s Communists two ) To reassess foreign policy. National Security Council released study NSC-68 stating that the US could no longer rely on other states to take enterprise in defying communism * US should take noncommunist universe and oppose communist enlargement everywhere it existed * Besides called for US to spread out military power dramatically

* Defense budget was now 4 times the antecedently projected figure 3 ) American Society and Politics After the War

a ) The Problems of Reconversion

I ) After terminal of war Truman attempted to rapidly return state to normal economic conditions. but jobs ensued ii ) No economic prostration ( many thought state would travel back into a depression ) b/c of several things * addition in disbursement on consumer goods from nest eggs gathered during war * a $ 6 billion govt revenue enhancement cut

* Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 ( GI Bill of Rights ) * provided instruction + economic assistance to returning soldiers that farther increased disbursement three ) Problems because of disbursement lead to high rising prices

* Caused Truman to subscribe a measure similar to wartime Office of Price Admin. ( OPA ) * Inflation besides caused brotherhood work stoppages in car. electrical. steel. railway ( shut down whole nation’s railway line ) . and excavation industries ( led by John L. Lewis * Truman used military and govt power to halt the work stoppages ( military on railwaies. govt on mine workers ) * supplanting of some minorities and adult females b/c of returning soldiers to labour * 80 % of them wanted to maintain working

* Postwar society in which many adult females had to supply for themselves created a high demand among them for paid work * Many went into service sector
B ) The Fair Deal Rejected

I ) After Jap resignation Truman proposed “Fair Deal” to ordain broad reforms * included raising minimal pay. ordaining Fair Employment Practices Act. spread outing Social Security. a plan to guarantee full employment through usage of federal disbursement. public lodging and slum clearance. govt protection of scientific research. and making state wellness insurance program ii ) Fair Deal opposed by Republican conservativists who gained bulk in both Houses of Congress in 1946 elections * Repubs sought to cut down govt disbursement ( acquire rid of New Deal plans ) and economic controls. cut revenue enhancements for wealthy. refused to raise rewards * Besides refused to increase SS. supply more financess to instruction. or support power undertakings in West * As rising prices soared. Republicans reasonably much merely state the populace to cover with it ( Sen. Robert Taft )

three ) Repubs wanted to diminish powers brotherhoods gained in 1935 Wagner Act * passed Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947 ( Taft-Hartley Act ) * made “closed-shop” illegal ( a workplace in which no 1 could be hired unless they were portion of a brotherhood ) * Although it stil permitted “union shops” . it allowed provinces to go through “right to work” Torahs which prohibited this * Outraged workers and brotherhood leaders denounced the step as a “slave labour bill” * Truman vetoed it. but both houses easy overruled him * Did non destruct labour motion. but it damaged weaker brotherhoods in lightly organized industries * Made more hard the organisation of workers who had ne’er been brotherhood members at all ( adult females. minorities. most workers in the South )

degree Celsius ) The Election of 1948

I ) Truman sought to do re-election about reforms but electorate saw him as weak * Tried to go through reforms taking up to election but they were all struck down by Congress * Didn’t have much support within even his ain party

* Southern Dems ( Dixiecrats ) split away and formed the States Rights Party after they became angry with Truman over his proposed civil rights measure * Gov. Strom Thurmond was their Presidential campaigner * Progressives besides broke off and formed new Progressive Party with Henry A. Wallace as their campaigner * Other Dems who didn’t interrupt off attempted to dump Truman in 1948

* The Americans for Democratic Actions ( ADA ) attempted to carry Dwight D. Eisenhower to contend the nomination. but he refused * Dems were forced to come in Truman as their nominee two ) Repubs nominated Thomas Dewey and seemed to be in strong place to win. but intense candidacy by Truman and his platform to cut down rising prices. aid common adult male. revoke Taft-Hartley Act. aid husbandmans. and his strong civil rights support for inkinesss allowed him to win Pres * Dems besides won both Houses of C

vitamin D ) The Fair Deal Revived

I ) New Dem Congress allowed for minimal pay addition. Social Security enlargement. and lodging ( National Housing Act of 1949provided the building of 810. 000 places for low income households ) * but were hostile to Fair Deal plans spread outing instruction assistance. national health care. and civil rights * rejected civil rights measure that would hold made lynching a federal offense. abolished the canvass revenue enhancement. and established a new Fair Employment Practices Commission ( FEPC )

two ) Truman did stop govt engaging favoritism. desegregated armed forces * Supreme Court in Skelley v. Kraemer regulations community “covenants” meant to exclude inkinesss from residential vicinities were now unenforceable by tribunals vitamin E ) The Nuclear Age

I ) Nuclear arms viewed w/ fear b/c of menace from Soviet Union * expressed in dad civilization. movie noir ( things such as The Twilight Zone. amusing books about ace heroes ) . and govt readyings for atomic onslaught ( air foray drills. exigency wireless broadcast drills. radioactive dust shelters ) * but public besides awed by technological potency of atomic power ( Dreams of prosperity and limitless + inexpensive electricity ) 4 ) The Korean War

a ) The Divided Peninsula

I ) Korea divided at 38th Parallel by US and Soviets into Communist North and Southern authorities of capitalist Syngman Rhee ( supported by US ) * north had a strong. Soviet equipped ground forces
* South had little 1 that merely dealt with internal personal businesss two ) Nationalists in North invaded S in 1950 in attempt to reunite states * unknown if North asked for Stalin’s blessing. but once it began. the Soviets certaintly supported them * on June 27. 1950. US won UN declaration naming for support of S. Korea ground forcess * Russia unable to blackball b/c boycotting Security Council at clip for their refusal to let communist China into Council * On June 30. 1950. US ordered their land forces into Korea

* Gen. Douglas MacArthur was to presume bid over UN forces at that place * War was seen as ”containment” attempt but besides as a “liberation” * After US beat North military personnels back into North Korea. Truman ordered to prosecute the Communists into their ain district * Wanted to make “a incorporate. independent and democratic Korea B ) From Invasion to Stalemate

I ) Gen MacArthur ( caput of UN forces ) able to progress far into North. but new communist Chinese govt feared American forces and hence entered struggle in Nov 1950 * UN violative stalled and so collapsed

* Through Dec of 1950. outnumbered US forces fought a bitter. losing conflict against the Chinese. invariably withdrawing two ) Within hebdomads. UN ground forcess forced to withdraw to 38th analogues * Eventually took back land doomed and got back to 38th analogues one time more * Long deadlock so ensued until 1953

three ) Truman wanted peace and non new universe war w/ China

* Gen MacArthur publically opposed peace attempt ( Martin missive ) and was relieved of bid by Pres in April 1951 * He believed that we should hold attacked China through either an invasion or bombardment * He had broad popular support. hence when he was relieved. there was broad public indignation * 69 % of American people supported him

degree Celsius ) Limited Mobilization
I ) War led to merely limited economic mobilisation. since it had small American military committedness. Govt still tried to command wartime economic system in several ways * Truman created Office of Defense Mobilization to battle lifting rising prices and deter high brotherhood pay demands * These failed

* govt seized RRs and steel Millss when workers walked off the occupation in brotherhood work stoppages * Costly work stoppages followed ( particularly in Steel Mills ) and workers got most of what they wanted as there was small Truman could make and his actions were both roseola and uneffective * The supreme tribunal disallowed him from go oning to prehend the steel Millss because they said he was transcending his authorization * increased govt disbursement stimulated economic system as many thought we were on the brink of a recession two ) Inability of US to rapidly stop “small” war led to growing of frights of growing of Communist at place and triggered 2nd major run against it * public was angry that so many lives were being lost ( 140. 000 dead or wounded ) 5 ) The Crusade Against Subversion

a ) HUAC and Alger Hiss

I ) Another “Red Scare” prompted by fright of Stalin and Communist growing ( “loss” of China. Korean defeats. Soviet development of the bomb ) * many sought to fault US communist confederacy two ) Anti Communist ardor merged from the Repubs seeking to utilize anticommunist feelings to win support against Dems. and Dems seeking to smother that issue * Congress created House Un-american Activities Committee ( HUAC ) in 1947 to look into communist corruption * Created by the Repubs to turn out that under Dem regulation. the govt had tolerated communist corruption * Went after Hollywood foremost

three ) Public more concerned with HUAC probe into former State Dept functionary Alger Hiss in 1948 that revealed some complicity w/ Communists * Were tipped by a former member of the Communist party that was now working for the Time magazine * He had “microfilms” of the paperss that were purportedly passed by Hiss to the Soviet Union in 1937 and 1938 * He could non be tried for espionage because offenses go on excessively long ago. but because of the attempts of Richard M. Nixon. he was convicted of bearing false witness and served several old ages in prison * increased fright of communist infiltrations

B ) The Federal Loyalty Program and the Rosenberg Case I ) Truman began 1947 plan to find “loyalty” of fed employees * this was partially because of Republican onslaughts. and partially to promote support for the President’s foreign policy enterprises * President authorized sensitive bureaus to fire people deemed “bad security risks” * By 1951. more than 2. 000 govt employees had resigned under force per unit area and 212 had been dismissed * FBI monitored groups ( J. Edgar Hoover )

* 1950 Congress passed McCarran Internal Security Act coercing communist groups to register w/ authorities two ) Explosion of atomic bomb by Soviets led to celebrated Rosenberg test to happen out how Russia had learned of engineering so rapidly * Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were a communist twosome whom the govt claimed had been the originators of the confederacy * Despite entreaties and protests from sympathisers. they both died in the electric chair on June 19. 1953 * They both proclaimed their artlessness to the terminal

three ) HUAC. Rosenberg test. “Loyalty” plan. Hiss ordeal. McCarran Act. and international events all lead to national anticommunist craze at national. province. and local degree * Schools. labour brotherhoods. universities. province and local govts. all sought to purge themselves of existent or imagined revolutionists iv ) A fright settled over the state of non merely communist infiltration. but being suspected of communism yourself c ) Mccarthyism

I ) Rather unknown Wisconsin Rep. Sen Joseph McCarthy in 1951 began leveling charges of communist agents in State Dept and other bureaus * He claimed to “hold in my hand” a list of 205 known Communists presently working in the US State Department * Within hebdomads. he was besides impeaching other bureaus

* His new subcommittee was at the bow of anticommunist crazes and partizan political relations * He accused many people even though he had small solid grounds vitamin D ) The Republican Revival I ) Korean deadlock and frights of internal corruption led to Dem letdowns * Truman was really unpopular and hence withdrew from the Presidential competition two ) Dems nominated Adlai Stevenson ( viewed as broad and Repubs saw him as being weak on Communism ) * Repubs nominated popular Gen Dwight Eisenhower and VP Richard Nixon ( became celebrated for his campaign against Hiss ) * Eisenhower talked of Korean peace. Nixon of communist corruption * Nixon besides attacked Democratic “appeasement” . “cowardice” . and “treason” * Both promised to “clean up the muss in Washington” three ) Eisenhower won election by immense border & A ; Republicans gained control of both Houses of Congress

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