BOC Study Guide

Respiratory System
-lungs and bronchi: are responsible for inhalation and exhalation
=O2 and CO2 exchange

Circulatory System
-blood originates from heart to lunviensgs to arteries to capillaries
=blood returns to the hearts by the vein through venous return

Nervous System
-brain, spinal cord and nerve roots
=dermatome and myotome innervations C4-T1 and L1-S4
=reflexes: achilles, patellar, biceps, brachioradialis, triceps, blink

Musculoskeletal System
-bones, muscles, ligaments (bone to bone), tendons (muscle to bone), and fascia (separates muscles from each other and connects)

Endocrine System
-glands, hormone that regulate the body
=body homeostasis (the body’s regulatory system: temperature –>hypothylamus)

Integumentary System
-skin, hair, and nails
=primary barrier against disease; protects internal environment from external potential diseases

Digestive System
-Gastro-Intestinal System
=take in and break down resources as well as discharge and waste

Urogenital System
-urinary system and reproductive system: gender specific
=males: penis and urethra and scrotum
=females: ovaries and uterus and clitorus

Normal anatomical, systemic, and physiological changes associated with lifespan
-pediatrics: birth to puberty=open growth plates, learning curve is significant (learning gross motor skills)
-adolescent (adulthood)=bid chemical changes
-puberty: increase growth, 2nd sex characteristics
-adulthood to geriatric: decreased metabolism, decreased cell repair, decreased muscular capabilities

puberty in females
-estrogens are responsible for a rapid growth spurt seen between 11 and 13 years
-full height is reached between the ages of 15-17
-progesterone are responsible for regulating the menstral cycle and reproductive development

puberty in males
-androgens: testosterone is responsible for the male growth and maturation of the internal and external reproductive system at puberty
-also associated with the development of pubic, axillary, and facial hair; enhanced hair growth on the chest, and a deeper voice
-increase bone growth, density, and size
-growth is complete between the ages of 19-24

common congenital and aquired risk factors
-strength and flexibility imbalances
-improper technique: bad habits
-congenital and acquired heart disease
-previous injuries and surgeries not healed

effects of common illnesses and diseases in physical activity
-increase in heart rate
-labored ventilation rate
-increase in core temperature
-lose of fluids
-metabolic processes have to work extra hard to maintain homeostasis from normal ADL’s as well as fight illness, recover from injury, etc.
-NECK DOWN: DISCONTINUE (internal illness); NECK UP (play ball)