Biology study guide, unit 2 cells

nucleus
Internal compar mentioned that houses the cell’s DNA, enable cells to function, found in a eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a nuclear envelope
Cell wall
Surrounds the cell membrane that provides structure and support
Eukaryote
An organism whose cells have a nucleus
Phospholipid
A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in a cell membrane
Prokaryote
A single celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal components
Flagellum
Long, threadlike structures that protrude from the cell surface and enable movement
Cell membrane
Encloses the cell and separates the cell interior
Cytoplasm
The cell interior, many structures, protected by cell membrane, structures are suspended
Endoplasmic reticulum
Extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell
Cell theory
All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function. Also arise from existing cells.
Cytoskeleton
System of microscopic fibers found in the cytoplasm
Ribosome
Cellular structures on which proteins are made
Cilium
Seizure like structure arranged in tightly packed rows
Lipid bilayer
The basic structure of a biological membrane, structural support, two layers.
vesicle
Small cavity of sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell . Surrounds the material and then transported inside the cell.
Golgi apparatus
Cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported
Mitochondrion
In eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes
Central vacuole
A large cavity or sac that is found in plant cells, helps digest food
Passive transport
Movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy
Concentration gradient
Difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
Equilibrium
Chemical reactions occur here
Diffusion
The movement of particles from regions of high or density to lower density
Osmosis
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Hypertonic solution
Solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis
Hypotonic solution
Causes a cell to swell because of osmosis
Isotonic solution
Solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis
Carrier protein
Bind to a specific substance on one side, carry the substance and release it
facilitated diffusion
Type of passive transport, bad move substances down their concentration gradient
Ion channel
Transport protein with a polar pour through which ions can pass
Active transport
The transfer of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient
Sodium potassium pump
Transports three sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
Endocytosis
Movement of a substance into a cell by vesicle
Exocytosis
Movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell
Organelle
One of the small bodies that are around in the cytoplasm of the cell
chloroplast
An organelle found in plant and algae cells, helps with photosynthesis