Biology study guide, unit 2 cells

Internal compar mentioned that houses the cell’s DNA, enable cells to function, found in a eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a nuclear envelope

Cell wall
Surrounds the cell membrane that provides structure and support

An organism whose cells have a nucleus

A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in a cell membrane

A single celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal components

Long, threadlike structures that protrude from the cell surface and enable movement

Cell membrane
Encloses the cell and separates the cell interior

The cell interior, many structures, protected by cell membrane, structures are suspended

Endoplasmic reticulum

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system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell

Cell theory
All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function. Also arise from existing cells.

System of microscopic fibers found in the cytoplasm

Cellular structures on which proteins are made

Seizure like structure arranged in tightly packed rows

Lipid bilayer
The basic structure of a biological membrane, structural support, two layers.

Small cavity of sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell . Surrounds the material and then transported inside the cell.

Golgi apparatus
Cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported

In eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes

Central vacuole
A large cavity or sac that is found in plant cells, helps digest food

Passive transport
Movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy

Concentration gradient
Difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance

Chemical reactions occur here

The movement of particles from regions of high or density to lower density

The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Hypertonic solution
Solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis

Hypotonic solution
Causes a cell to swell because of osmosis

Isotonic solution
Solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis

Carrier protein
Bind to a specific substance on one side, carry the substance and release it

facilitated diffusion
Type of passive transport, bad move substances down their concentration gradient

Ion channel
Transport protein with a polar pour through which ions can pass

Active transport
The transfer of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient

Sodium potassium pump
Transports three sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell

Movement of a substance into a cell by vesicle

Movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell

One of the small bodies that are around in the cytoplasm of the cell

An organelle found in plant and algae cells, helps with photosynthesis

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