Biology: Section 3.1/3.2 Study Guide

Hooke
first to identify cells and name them

Leeuwenhoek
observed live cells and observed in greater detail

Schleiden
concluded that plants are made of cells

Schwann
concluded that animals and all living things are made up of cells

Virchow
proposed that all cells come from other cells

What are the three parts of the cell theory?
1. all organisms are made of cells
2. all existing cells are produced by other living cells
3. the cell is the most basic unit of life

Two reasons why the cell theory is important
1. helped people understand that life didn’t arise from nonliving sources
2. one of the great unifying theories of biology

Eukaryotic cells
– surrounded by a cell membrane
– contains cytoplasm
– contains a nucleus
– contains membrane-bound organelles
– tends to be microscopic in size
– may be single-celled or multicellular

Prokaryotic cells
– surrounded by a cell membrane
– contains cytoplasm
– tends to be microscopic in size
– single-celled

Both Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
– surrounded by a cell membrane
– contains cytoplasm
– tends to be microscopic in size

What is cytoplasm?
a jellylike substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks and, in some types of cells, organelles

Where do you find organelles?
in the cytoplasm

What statements summarize scientist’s concepts of cells?
cell theory

Which type of cells have no nucleus?
prokaryotic cells

What are the functions of a cytoskeleton?
supports and shapes the cell, positions and transports organelles, provides strength, assists in cell division, and aids cell movement

How is a cytoskeleton like your skeleton?
supports and shapes the cell

How is a cytoskeleton like your muscles?
helps the cell move

Nucleus function
stores most of the genetic information of a cell

Nucleus contains
the nucleolus

Nucleolus
where ribosomes are assembled

Endoplasmic reaction function
helps in the production of proteins and lipids

Ribosomes function
link amino acids together to form proteins

Golgi apparatus function
processes, sorts, and delivers proteins

Vesicles function
carries certain molecules from place to place within a cell

Mitochondrion function
supply energy to the cell by converting molecules from food into usable energy

Vacuole function
stores materials needed by a cell; may help provide support to plant cells

Lysosome function
contains enzymes that break down damaged and worn-out cell parts; defends a cell from invaders

Centriole function
organizes microtubules to form cilia and flagella for cell motion or the movement of fluids past a cell

What role do cell walls play in a plant?
They are strong and rigid and adhere to each other, which helps to support the entire plant

Cell membrane
– all cells are surrounded by a it
– is flexible and interacts with the environment

Cell wall
– only certain cells have a cell wall
– rigid and provides shape and support to the cells

Why are chloroplasts important?
They enable plants to convert solar energy into energy-rich molecules that cells can use

Which cell part is a maze of folded membranes where proteins and lipids are produced?
endoplasmic reticulum

Which cell part converts food into energy that is usable by a cell?
mitochondrion