Biology II Test 2 Study Guide

Define Classification:
Grouping of objects or information based on similarties.

Explain why Aristole is importantant.
He developed the 1st classification system; put all organisms into 2 groups (plants & animals)

What is binomal nomenclature?
Scientific name composed of Genus & species in Latin.

How does Linneas’ system categorize organisims?
Based on physical characteristics & structual characteristics

What language is used for naming organisms? Why is that language used?
Latin so that all scientist can identify organisms in one language no matter the language they speak.

What is phylogeny?
Evolutionary history of a speices.

What is taxonomy?
The branch of biology that groups names organisms.

List the taxonomic categories from largest to smallest.
Kingdom< Phylum< Class< Order< Family< Genus< Species

List the 6 kingdoms.
(Archeabacteria, Eubacteria)- used to be monera, Protist, Fungi, Plants, & Animals

What are the 2 componets of a virus?
Protien coat (capsid) + nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)

Why aren’t viruses alive?
They cant grow develop, carryout repiration, not made of cells + cant replicatew/out a host cell.

Define provirus (prophage).
Viral DNA is integrated into the host cell DNA & replicates each time the host cell replicates (lysogenic cycle)

List and discribe the steps of the lytic cycle.
1. Attachment
2. Entry
3. Replication
4. Assembly
5. Lysis Release

List and discribe the steps of the lysogenic cylce.
1. Attachment
2. Entry
3. Pro-virus Formation
4. Cell Division

Give 2 examples of lysogenic viruses
Herpes, Hepatitis

Define retrovirus.
Viral replication that occurs when the virus uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA from RNA

Give an example of retroviruses.
HIV/AIDS

What are prokaryotes?
Unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus

What are the 2 kingdoms of prokaryotes?
Archeabacteria & Eubacteria

What is peptidoglycan and how does it relate to the kindoms of prokaryotes?
Carbohydrate found in the cell walls of some bacteria. Eubacteria has it, Archeabacteria do not.

How are archaebacteria related to eukaryotes?
Archeabacteria, DNA seqences of Eukaryotes

What are methanogens?
Organisms that produce methane gas

What are chemoautotrophs?
Organisms that must take in organic molecules for both energy & carbon

What are photoautotrophs?
Organisms that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon diovide of H2O to carbon compounds

What are obligate anaerobes?
Organism that cannot live in the presence of oxygen

What are facultative aerobes?
Organism that perfers to live with oxygen

How do prokaryotes reproduce?
Binary Fission of conjugation

What is conjujation?
Form of sexual reproduction in which some prokaryotes exchange genetic information

Give 3 ways bacteria is important and useful.
Decomposers, nitrogen fixers & human uses food, cleaning oil spills a creating medicine

Why do plants need nitrogen?
it is a fertilizer

Prions are composed of infectious_____ but have no______ to carry genetic information. They cause other proteins to fold themselves incorrectly resulting in imporper functiong.
Particles — RNA or DNA

Give 3 humans prion diseases.
(CJD) Creutzfield Jacob Disease, Gertsman – Straussler- Scheinker Syndrome (GSS) & Fatal Familar Insomnia (FFI)

Give 3 animal prion diseases
Mad Cow Disease, Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

How are prion diseases transmitted.
From host to host

What symptoms do all prion disease have in common?
Shaking, itching & anger