Biology, Cognition, and Learning

Today’s learning theorists recognize that human learning results not only from environmental influences but from an interaction of _____ influences.
biopsychosocial

Robert Rescorla’s research demonstrated the importance of _____ in classical conditioning.
cognition

Compared to children not exposed to the adult model in Bandura’s experiment, those who observed the model’s aggressive outburst were _____ to lash out at the doll.
much more likely

According to Darwin’s principle of natural selection and Garcia’s later work, taste aversions increase the likelihood of _____ in humans and other animals.
survival

In a 1972 classical conditioning study, _____ showed that an animal can learn the predictability of an event.
Robert Rescorla

Studies show that a significant number of children who are victims of child abuse become child abusers themselves. This behavior is learned through _____, and the area of the brain that models this behavior involves the _____.
observational learning; mirror neurons

_____ studied the development of taste aversions and stated that they could not be explained by the basic principles of classical conditioning.
John Garcia

Learning that is not immediately demonstrated in overt behavior is called _____ learning.
latent

Four-year-old Mia watched her mother sing while she was brushing her hair. The next day Mia’s mother saw Mia singing while brushing her stuffed dog. Mia was _____ her mother’s behavior that she acquired through observational learning.
modeling

Coyotes who have been fed sheep carcasses that have been laced with a nausea-inducing poison are less likely to prey on sheep in the wild. This phenomenon is best explained by the classical conditioning phenomenon called _____.
taste aversion

The concept of _____ learning helps to demonstrate that rewards affect performance of what has been learned rather than the process of learning itself.
latent

In a study, adult males who spent three evenings watching sexually violent movies became progressively less bothered by the rapes and slashing. Compared with those in a control group, the film watchers later expressed less sympathy for domestic violence victims, and they rated the victims’ injuries as less severe. The violence-viewing effect demonstrated in this study was _____.
desensitization

Taste aversion is a real-life example of _____ conditioning.
classical

Learning that is not immediately demonstrated in overt behavior is called:
latent learning.

The famous Bobo doll research was conducted by _____ and showed the power of _____.
Albert Bandura; observational learning

_____ learning is learning that is not demonstrated until one is motivated to perform the behavior.
Latent

One chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward. The first chimp then imitates how the second chimp solved the puzzle. This best illustrates:
observational learning.

_____ occurs when an animal’s inborn behavior patterns interfere with the operant conditioning of new behaviors.
Instinctive drift

A mental representation of the layout of one’s environment is called a(n) _____.
cognitive map

According to the observational learning theory, when children have _____ models, they imitate helpful and positive behaviors.
prosocial

The idea that an animal’s natural behavior patterns did not matter and had little or no effect on the effectiveness of operant conditioning principles was challenged by research conducted by:
Keller and Marian Breland.

A(n) _____ is a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned this kind of mental representation.
cognitive map

According to the observational learning theory, when children have _____ models, they imitate the negative behaviors they see.
antisocial

Which psychologist studied the development of taste aversions and how they could not be explained by the basic principles of classical conditioning?
John Garcia

In Robert Rescorla and Allan Wagner’s (1972) classical conditioning experiment, one group of rats experienced a tone just before each of 20 shocks. A second group of rats experienced the same number of tone-shock pairings plus an additional 20 shocks with no tone. Rescorla found that the rats in the first group showed a much stronger conditioned fear response than the rats in the second group. How did Rescorla explain this finding?
An animal can learn the predictability of an event.

Which factor would be the MOST important in the acquisition of aggressive behaviors through observational learning?
a person who commits violent acts but goes unpunished

In a famous experiment, John Garcia gave novel food to one group of rats and familiar food to another group of rats. Then both groups of rats were made to vomit. According to Garcia’s work, the rats given the _____ food would develop an aversion to their food.
novel

The concept of latent learning helps to demonstrate that:
rewards affect performance of what has been learned rather than the process of learning itself.

While watching the movie Field of Dreams, Lizette becomes very emotional during the scene when the main character gets emotional after he asks his father to play catch. This empathetic response can be partially attributed to her _____ neurons.
mirror

In a series of experiments conducted by Elliot and Niesta (2008) in which subjects were shown photographs of women that controlled for other factors (such as the brightness of the image), men (but not women) found women more attractive and sexually desirable when framed in the color _____.
red

Models who commit violent acts but go unpunished would lead to the _____ of aggressive behavior in an observer through the process of observational learning.
acquiring

Behaviorist and learning researcher Gregory Kimble acknowledged that learning in animals is not just a matter of responding to the environment but it is limited by the animals’ _____ to learn associations that enhance their chances of survival.
predispositions

In psychologist Robert Rescorla’s classical conditioning experiment, one group of rats experienced a tone just before each of 20 shocks. A second group of rats experienced the same number of tone-shock pairings plus an additional 20 shocks with no tone. Rescorla found that the rats in the first group showed a much stronger conditioned fear response than the rats in the second group. How did Rescorla explain this finding?
The tone was a more reliable predictor of the shock for the first group of rats.

The famous Bobo doll experiment was conducted by _____ and showed the power of observational learning.
Albert Bandura

Which psychologist proposed a cognitive explanation of classical conditioning?
Robert Rescorla

The process of learning and imitating behavior is called _____.
modeling

Keller Breland and Marian Breland trained pigs to pick up large wooden “dollars” and deposit them in a piggy bank. Later, the pigs reverted to their natural behavior: dropping the coin, pushing it with their snouts, picking it up again, and then repeating the sequence, delaying their food reinforcer. The Brelands referred to the reason for this behavior as _____.
instinctive drift

Latent learning is:
learning that is not demonstrated until one is motivated to perform the behavior.

Learning by imitating the behavior of others is called observational learning, and the researcher best known for studying this type of learning is _____.
Bandura

While humans are more biologically prepared to learn taste aversions to foods that made them sick, birds are more likely to be sensitive to the _____ of tainted food.
sight

In a study conducted by Singer (et al. 2004) that utilized an fMRI, the pain imagined by an empathic romantic partner triggered some of the same brain activity experienced by the loved one actually having the pain. This study demonstrated that empathy is a function of _____.
mirror neurons

The idea that an animal’s natural behavior patterns did not matter and had little or no effect on the effectiveness of operant conditioning principles was challenged by research conducted by _____.
Keller and Marian Breland

Although Skinner and other behaviorists did not think that it was necessary to refer to thoughts or expectations when explaining human learning, findings from experiments with rats suggest otherwise. Which finding suggests that cognitive processes are involved in operant learning?
Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes.

_____ is the researcher who discovered mirror neurons through his experiments with monkeys.
Giacomo Rizzolatti

The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors that can interfere with learning operant behaviors is called _____.
instinctive drift

Ten-year-old Zahid continually interrupts his teacher with jokes that make his fellow students laugh. The attention from the other students is an example of:
an extrinsic reward.

By the age of _____ months, infants will imitate acts modeled on television.
14

In a series of experiments conducted by Elliot and Niesta (2008) in which subjects were shown photographs of women that controlled for other factors (such as the brightness of the image), men (but not women) found women more attractive and sexually desirable when framed in the color:
red.

A rat is allowed to explore a maze for several trials. On the last trial he finds a piece of food at the end of the maze. On the following trial his speed through the maze increases dramatically. This is an example of:
latent learning.

Which neurons fire both when a person performs an action and when the person sees the action done by another person?
mirror neurons

Which example shows evidence that animals are predisposed to learn associations that help them adapt and survive in their environment?
birds being biologically primed to develop aversions to the sight of tainted food because they hunt by sight

Behavior driven by rewards, rules, and responsibilities is to _____ as behavior motivated by enjoyment, satisfaction, or challenge is to _____.
extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation

In the United States and Canada, _____ rates doubled between 1957 and 1974, coinciding with the introduction and spread of TV.
homicide

Taste aversion is a real-life example of which type of learning?
classical conditioning

An analysis of more than 3000 network and cable TV programs aired in the 1996-1997 season revealed that nearly 6 in 10 featured violence, 74 percent of the violence went unpunished, 58 percent did not show the victims’ pain, nearly half the incidents involved “justified” violence, and nearly half involved an attractive perpetrator. These conditions define the recipe for the _____ effect described in many studies.
violence-viewing

Parents who model reading, helpful behavior, and nonviolent responses are likely to increase _____ behavior in their children.
prosocial

If a parent wants to increase the amount of time a child spends reading as opposed to playing video games, the parent will need to increase the _____ of reading.
intrinsic motivation

Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy were later observed to play with the toy less than those who were not promised the reward. These findings provide support for the role of _____ in operant behavior.
cognitive processes

Robert Rescorla’s research demonstrated that in classical conditioning the more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response. It’s as if the animal learns a(n) _____, which is how likely it is that the US will occur.
expectancy

_____ behavior is behavior that is harmful, destructive, and/or violent.
Antisocial

During their first 18 years, most children in developed countries spend more time watching TV than they spend in _____.
school

In a study conducted by Singer (et al., 2004) that utilized an fMRI, the pain imagined by an empathic romantic partner triggered some of the same brain activity experienced by the loved one actually having the pain. This study demonstrated that empathy is a function of:
mirror neurons.

Mirror neurons help children to develop empathy and the ability to infer another’s mental state. This ability is known as:
the theory of mind.

Which statement best describes instinctive drift?
The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors can interfere with learning operant behaviors.

Conditioned taste aversions demonstrate:
that certain stimuli are easier to associate than others due to biological preparedness.

The famous Bobo doll study demonstrated that children are less likely to imitate the actions of someone who has been _____ for his or her actions.
punished

Children observing violent and destructive behavior and then modeling that behavior is an example of the _____ effect.
antisocial

Coyotes who have been fed sheep carcasses that have been laced with a nausea-inducing poison are less likely to prey on sheep in the wild. This phenomenon is best explained by which classical conditioning phenomenon?
taste aversion

Mirror neurons are found in the brain’s _____ and are believed to be the neural basis for observational learning.
frontal lobe

_____ fire both when a person performs an action and when the person sees the action done by another person.
Mirror neurons

_____ is a pioneering learning researcher who highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior.
Bandura

_____ is the researcher who discovered the function of mirror neurons through his experiments with monkeys.
Giacomo Rizzolatti

Behavior driven by rewards, rules, and responsibilities is _____ motivation.
extrinsic

Psychologist John Garcia found that rats did not learn to associate a taste with flashing lights and noise. However, rats did learn to associate a taste with getting ill. Which concept best accounts for this observation?
biological preparedness

The predictability of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) facilitates an organism’s ability to expect the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a _____ perspective.
cognitive

The process of learning and imitating behavior is called:
modeling.

Kayne always drives down Hampton Avenue to go to work. One morning he discovers that Hampton Avenue is closed due to construction. Kayne immediately takes a different route to work. He is able to make a quick route change because he has formed a(n) _____ of the area.
cognitive map

Researchers discover that the neuronal activity in the brain of a monkey who simply watched another monkey pick up and eat a peanut was the same as the brain activity of the monkey actually performing these actions. These researchers are investigating _____.
mirror neurons

Keller Breland and Marian Breland trained pigs to pick up large wooden “dollars” and deposit them in a piggy bank. Later, the pigs reverted to their natural behavior: dropping the coin, pushing it with their snouts, picking it up again, and then repeating the sequence, delaying their food reinforcer. The Brelands referred to the reason for this behavior as:
instinctive drift.

The reason why abusive parents often raise aggressive children and why wife-beating husbands often had wife-beating fathers is due to the _____ effects of this sort of modeling.
antisocial

The process of learning and imitating _____ is called modeling.
behavior

In the classical conditioning experiment conducted by Robert Rescorla that involved two groups of rats, one group of rats heard a tone just before each of 20 shocks. The second group of rats experienced the same 20 tone-shock pairings, but also experienced an additional 20 shocks that were not paired with a tone. How did the two groups differ?
The rats in the first group displayed a much stronger conditioned fear response to the tone than did the rats in the second group.

Compared to children not exposed to the adult model in Bandura’s experiment, those who observed the model’s aggressive outburst were _____ likely to lash out at the doll.
more

Psychologist John Garcia found that rats did not learn to associate a taste with flashing lights and noise. However, rats did learn to associate a taste with getting ill. The concept that best accounts for this observation is _____.
biological preparedness

_____ behavior is positive, constructive, and helpful behavior which may be acquired through modeling from others.
Prosocial

Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy were later observed to play with the toy less than those who were not promised the reward. These findings provide support for the role of _____ processes in operant behavior.
cognitive

In using operant conditioning principles to train animals to perform tricks, Keller and Marian Breland found that:
an animal’s inborn or instinctive behavior patterns could interfere with the operant conditioning of new behaviors.

Experts predict that when the majority of today’s U.S. teenagers are in their mid-70s, they will have watched TV for the equivalent of about _____ years.
9

_____ help to develop children’s empathy and their ability to infer another’s mental state, which is known as the theory of mind.
Mirror neurons

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior?
Bandura

Giacomo Rizzolatti is the researcher who discovered the function of _____ through his experiments with monkeys.
mirror neurons

Many businesses, schools and other organizations use _____ to help train new employees or to improve communication or customer service skills. These trainees that observe others skilled in these areas model the behaviors needed by these organizations.
behavior modeling

Studies have shown that exposure to violence _____ viewers when they later view violence on television.
desensitizes

Learning by imitating the behavior of others is called _____ learning.
observational

In the United States and Canada, _____ rates doubled between 1957 and 1974, just when TV was introduced and spreading.
murder

Mirror neurons are found in the brain’s _____ and are believed to be the neural basis for _____.
frontal lobe; observational learning

Mirror neurons help to develop children’s empathy and their ability to infer another’s mental state, which is known as the _____.
theory of mind

Learning by imitating the behavior of others is called _____ learning, and the researcher best known for studying this type of learning is _____.
observational; Bandura

Many business organizations effectively use _____ to train communications, sales, and customer service skills. Trainees gain skills faster when they are able to observe the skills being practiced effectively by experienced workers.
behavior modeling

According to the observational learning theory, when children have _____ models, they imitate the negative behaviors they observe.
antisocial

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