Biology Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life
The basic unit of matter
The center of the atom, where protons and neutrons are bound together
Negatively charged part of an atom that orbits the nucleus
Positively charged part of an atom that is located in the nucleus
Neutrally charged part of the atom that is located in the nucleus
A pure substance that consists of entirely one type of atom.
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in nucleus of an atom
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
Electrons that are available to form bonds
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
When electrons are shared between atoms.
Smallest unit of most compounds. Structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds.
Van der Walls force
Slight attractions between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
When there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the atoms in a molecule
The attraction between the hydrogen atom on one water molecule and the oxygen atom on another. Weaker than ionic or covalent bonds, but is responsible for cohesion
Attraction between molecules of same substance
Attraction between molecules in different substances
A material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
When all the components are evenly distributed throughout the solution
The substance that is dissolved
The substance in which the solute dissolves
Non-dissolved material in a liquid
Scale that indicates the concentration of H+ ions in solution. Lower is acidic, higher is basic
Weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
Large molecules that are made up of many other smaller molecules
Single unit of polymer
Made up of monomers
Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms in a ratio of 1:2:1. Used for main source of energy and plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes. Monomer-monosaccharaides. Polymer-polysaccharides.
Made of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms. Used to store energy, make up membranes, and waterproof coverings. Formed from Glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids. If no double bonds—saturated (butter), if one double bond—unsaturated (olive oil), if multiple double bonds—polyunsaturated (Cooking oils). Monomer—Glycerol and fatty acids
Contains hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. They store and transmit hereditary/genetic information. Two kinds—RNA and DNA. Monomer—nucleotides. Consists of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Contain Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. They control rate of reaction, regulate cell processes, form bones and muscles, or help fight disease. Monomer—amino acids
A process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
Elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction
Elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
The energy that is needed to get a reaction started
A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Proteins that act as biological catalysts
The site where reactants can be brought together to react. Site reduces energy needed for reaction.
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions