Biology Chapter 10 Test Review Guide

Cell Division
Cells divide and produce two daughter cells

Asexual Reproduction
Is the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent.

Sexual reproduction
Is when offspring inherit some of their genetic information from each parent.

Chromosomes
Are genetic information bundled into packages of DNA.

Chromatin
DNA tightly coiled around proteins

Chromatid
One copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy by a single centromere.

Centromere
Holds the two sister chromatids together.

Binary fission
Prokaryotic cell division

Interphase
Is the portion of a cell’s life in between cell division.

G1 phase
Cell grows and perform normal functions

S phase
DNA is copied for cell division.

G2 Phase
Organelles and molecules are copied for cell division

M Phase
Contains the phases of cell division.

Mitosis
Is division of the nucleus.

Cytokinesis
Is the division of the cytoplasm.

Prophase
-Replicated chromosomes condense.
-Nuclear envelope disappears.
-Nucleolus disappears.
-Centrioles move to the opposite sides of the cell.
-Mitotic spindle forms from centrioles.

Metaphase
-Chromosomes attach to the spindles and line up along the center (midline) of the cell.

Anaphase
-Sister chromatids separate and move along the spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.

Telophase
-Nuclear envelope re-forms around chromatids.
-Nucleolus re-forms.
-Chromatids uncoil into chromatin.
-Spindle breaks apart.
-Centrioles move near the re-forming nuclei.

Mitotic spindle
Macromolecular machine that segregates chromosomes to two daughter cells during mitosis.

Cell Plate
Forms in between the nuclei to make a cell wall

Cyclin
Family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle

Internal regulator
Proteins that respond to events inside the cell

Apoptosis
The process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms

Cancer
Is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Tumor
A swelling of a part of the body, generally without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue, whether benign or malignant.

Metastasis
The spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

Chemotherapy
Kills the tumor cells.

Radiation
Mutates the tumors’ cell’s DNA making it nonfunctional.