Biology Chapter 1: Scientific study of life

What is life?
A combination of characteristics distinguishes life: organization, energy use, internal constancy, reproduction and development, and evolution.

Atoms form________
Molecules

Molecules form____________ inside many cells.
Organelles

Consists of one or more cells
Organism

cells form _______ and then______ and __________
tissue, organs and organ systems

Individuals of the same species make up?
Population

Multiple populations form?
Communities

Includes living communities plus their non-living environment
Ecosystems

Make their own food, using energy and nutrients extracted form the non-living environment,
Producers

Eat other organisms living or dead.
Consumers

Recycle nutrients to the non-living environment
Decompers

What is a known outside energy source that all ecosystems require?
The Sun (heat)

What is homeostasis?
An internal constancy in changing environmental conditions.

Virtually identical copies of one parent
Asexual Reproduction

Genetic diversity by combining and scrambling DNA from two parents.
Sexual Reproduction

Natural Selection
Environmental conditions select for organisms with inherited traits.

Adaption
Increases the chance of survival and reproduction

Evolution
Through natural selection explains how common ancestry unites all species, producing diverse organisms with many similarities.

Taxonomy
The science of classification

Species
Organisms according to probable evolutionary relationships.

Genus
Closely related species.

What are the two broadest taxonomic levels?
Domain and Kingdom

What are the three domains of life?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

Kingdoms
mode of nutrition and other features are distinguished by

Scientific Method
A way of using evidence to evaluate ideas about the natural world.

Hypothesis
A scientist makes observations raises questions, and uses reason to construct a testable explanation.

Predictions
Follow from a scientific hypothesis

Peer Review
Ensures that published studies meet high standards for quality.

Experiment
A test of a hypothesis carried out in controlled conditions.

Sample Size
The larger the _______ the more credible the results of an experiment.

Variables
Changeable elements in an experiment

Independent Variable
The factor that the investigator manipulates

Dependent Variable
What the investigator measures to determine the outcome of the experiment.

Standardized Variable
Held constant for all subjects.

Control Group
A set of subjects receiving no treatment also known as a placebo

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