Biology Cell Study Guide

Cell Theory
Theory that states that all organisms are made of cells, all cells are made of other cells and the cell is the most basic unit of life.
Cytoplasm
Jelly like substance inside the cell membrane that contains organelles and molecules.
Organelle
Membrane bound structure that’s specialized to perform a distinct process within the cell
Prokaryotic cell
The cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic cell
Cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
Cytoskeleton
Network of proteins such as microtubules and microfilaments inside a eukaryotic cell that support and shape a cell
Nucleus
The central organel of the cell that is composed of a double membrane that holds most of the cell’s DNA
Endoplasmic reticulum
Interconnected network of thin folded membranes that produce process and distribute proteins
Ribosomes
Organelles that links amino acids together to form proteins
Golgi apparatus
Stack of flattened membrane enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process sort and deliver proteins.
Vesicle
Small organelle that contains and transports materials within the cytoplasm
Mitochondrion
Bean shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
Vacuole
Organelle that is used to store materials such as water food or enzymes that are needed by the cell
Lysosome
Membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes. Defend cell from sickness. Breakdown damaged parts of cell
centriole
Small cylinder shape organelle it made of protein to arrange in a circle. Aids mitosis
Cell wall
Rigid structure that gives protection support and shape to cells in plants fungi algae bacteria and other plants
Chloroplast
Organelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Contains chlorophyll
Cell membrane
Double layer of phospholipid that forms the boundary between a cell an outside environment and controls passage of materials in and out of the cell.
Phospholipid
Molecule that forms double-layered cell membrane. Consist of glycerol phosphate and to fatty acids
Fluid mosaic model
Model that describes arrangement and movement of molecules that make up cell membrane
Selective permeability
Condition of allowing some materials to cross a barrier or membrane
receptor
Protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
Passive transport
Movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell
Diffusion
Movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to region of lower concentration
Concentration gradient
Difference in concentration of a substance from one location to another
Osmosis
Diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration to an area of low water concentration
Isotonic
Solution with equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
Hypotonic
Solution with lower concentration of dissolved particles than an other solution
Hypertonic
Solution with higher concentration of dissolved particles
Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion of molecules assisted by protein channels that pierce the cell membrane
Active transport
energy requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of the low concentration to high concentration
Endocytosis
Uptake of liquids or molecules into the cell by inward folding of cell membrane
Phagocytosis
Uptake of solid particle into cell by engulfing the particle
Exocytosis
release of substance out of a cell by fusion of vesicle with membrane