Biology 1408: The scientific study of life

Name the shared characteristics of life.
Life is organized.
Life requires energy.
Life maintains internal constancy(homeostasis).
Life reproduces.
Life evolves.

What are the levels of biological organization?
Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, ecosystem

Name the steps in the scientific method.
observation and question, develop hypothesis(must be testable), experiment with a control group, data(results of the experiment

What is the definition of the scientific method?
a general way of using evidence to answer questions and test ideas

Cell Theory
The cell is the smallest(basic) unit of life.
All organisms are composed of cells.
All cells arise from other cells.

Prokaryotic cells
Have no nucleus, have unprotected DNA

Eukaryotic cells
have a nucleus, protected DNA, are more advanced type of cells

Population
groups of individuals of the same species

Community
all the populations within a given area

Ecosystem
communities plus the physical environment

Autotrophs
make their own food by extracting energy from nonliving sources(also called “producers”) (plants & microscopic organisms)

Heterotrophs
obtain energy by eating other organisms (also called “consumers”) (animals and some single celled organisms, such as amoebas)

Decomposers
heterotrophs that obtain energy from waste and remains of other organisms(fungi and some bacteria)

Homeostasis
the ability of an organism to maintain relatively constant internal conditions(for example: sweating, blood sugar regulation)

asexual reproduction
reproductions without gametes(sperm and egg)

sexual reproduction
reproduction with gametes

adaptations(adaptive traits)
inherited characteristic behavior that makes an organism better suited to its environment; adaptations occur through evolution

Natural Selection
“survival of the fittest,” a population produces more offspring than will survive hoping that the adaptations will provide a fit survivor; Charles Darwin is the “father of natural selection”

Taxonomy
the branch of science that deals with the study of naming and classifying organisms

Taxonomic levels
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Species
organisms that can reproduce and produce fertile offspring

Binomial nomenclature
scientific names using genus and species

Domain
Largest, most diverse taxonomic group that contains similar organisms based on cellular characteristics

Name the three domains.
Archaea
Bacteria
Eukarya

Name the 4 kingdoms under Domain Eukarya.
Animalia
Plantae
Fungi
Protista(can be uni-or multicellular)