BIOLOGY 100 CH1: The Study of Life

Evolution
Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth

DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix

Biology
The scientific study of life

Emergent properties
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.

Systems Biology
An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system’s parts.

Eukaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic Cell
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes.

Prokaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.

Gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).

Gene expression
The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.

Genome
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism’s or virus’s genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.

Biosphere
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems.

Ecosystems
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them

Community
All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction.

Population
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring.

Organism
a creature such as a plant, animal or a single-celled life form, or something that has interdependent parts and that is being compared to a living creature

Organs
A specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues.

Organ Systems
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.

Tissues
An integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both.

Organelles
Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells.

Cell
The part of a neuron that houses the nucleus and most other organelles.

Molecule
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

Negative Feedback
A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.

Positive Feedback
A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.

Adaptation
Inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in a specific environment.

Inductive Reasoning
Induction moves from a set of specific observations (humans require organic molecules, fish require organic molecules) to reach a general conclusion (all animals require organic molecules

Data
Recorded observations.

Hypothesis
A testable explanation for a set of observations based on the available data and guided by inductive reasoning. A hypothesis is narrower in scope than a theory.

Deductive Reasoning
A type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise.

Controlled Experiment
An experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested.

Dependent Variable
It is something that depends on other factors.

Independent Variable
It is a variable that stands alone and isn’t changed by the other variables you are trying to measure.

Theory
An explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence.

What are the 7 Characteristics of Life?
What are the 7 Characteristics of Life?
1. Order
2. Regulation
3. Energy Processing
4. Evolutionary Adaptation
5. Response to the Environment
6. Reproduction
7. Growth and Development

Metabolism
The totality of an organism’s chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and energy resources of the organism.

Why is Biology a Science?
Biology is a science since it takes care to interpret the nature, according to the scientific method, which establishes the resolution of hypotheses raised by the researcher, by means of using different techniques for the creation of representative models of nature.

Distinguish between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning derives generalizations from specific cases and deductive reasoning predicts specific outcomes from general premises.

What are the 7 steps of the Scientific Method?
1. Observe
2. Research
3. Form a hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis
5. Analyze results and draw conclusions
6. Report your findings
7. Conduct more research

What is the difference between hypothesis, theory and law?
The Difference between a Hypothesis a Theory and a Law there are very distinct. A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested. A theory is a statement that has not been tested. A Law is a statement that is relevant and is true.

What is the difference between observational and experimental investigations?
Observational investigations do not manipulate data

What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?
What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?
Quantitative data includes recorded measurements which can be organized into tables or graphs and qualitative data would include observations

What is the relationship between the conclusion and the hypothesis?
The conclusion is a statement about the experiment’s results. As a report of your data, it can’t be considered wrong even if the results don’t support your hypothesis. You have learned that your hypothesis does not answer your original research question.

What are the three domains by which all living organisms are classified?
What are the three domains by which all living organisms are classified?
Domain Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Domain Eukarya

What are the 4 kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya?
Plantae
Animalia
Fungi
Protista

What are Bacteria?
All unicellular prokaryotic (no nucleus) organisms with peptidoglycan in their cell walls

What is the Theory of Natural Selection?
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

How do we distinguish between results(data) and conclusions?
Results are measurable data and a conclusion is a report about what you learned based on w the results

Concept 1.2: Why is evolution considered the core theme of biology?
Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life and it explains the most fundamental aspects of all life on earth. It accounts for the common features shared by all forms of life due to the descent from a common ancestor.

Concept 1.3: How could natural selection have led to the evolution of adaptations such as the thick, water conserving leaves of the mother of pearl plant?
Ancestors of this plant may have exhibited variation in how well their leaves conserved water. Because not much soil is present in the crevices where these plants are found, the variant plans that could conserve water may hav survived better and been able to produce more offspring.

Define Biology? What is the definition of Biology
Biology is the scientific study of life

What is the molecule that can account for both the unity and the diversity of life?
DNA

What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type occupying a defined area?
A Population

How would you define a Eukaryotic cell?
How would you define a Eukaryotic cell?
A eukaryotic cell has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus

How would you define a prokaryotic cell?
How would you define a prokaryotic cell?
A prokaryotic cell is simpler and usually smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles

What is deductive reasoning?
Deductive reasoning uses general premises to make specific predictions

What are the 7 Properties/Characteristics of Life
What are the 7 Properties/Characteristics of Life
1. Order
2. Regulation
3. Energy Processing
4. Evolutionary Adaptation
5. Response to the Environment
6. Reproduction
7. Growth and Development

What is reductionism?
The approach of reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study.

What are the 10 levels of Biological Organization?
What are the 10 levels of Biological Organization?
1. Biosphere
2. Ecosystem
3. Communities
4. Populations
5. Organisms
6. Organs and Organ Systems
7. Tissues
8. Cells
9. Organelles
10. Molecules

Cell
Cell
The lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life

What is a theory?
A theory is a statement that has not been tested

What is a law?
A Law is a statement that is relevant and is true.

What is a hypothesis?
A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested

What are data?
Data are recorded observations or items of information

Of the three domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, which one is prokayotic?
Archaea

The energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from….
The sun

Eukaryotic organisms that decompose dead organisms and absorb the nutrients are generally found in which kingdom?
Fungi

All the organisms on a campus make up…
a community