Biol 2117 chp 1 and 4

AIDScaused by virus which destroys the bodys immune system and allows opportunistic infections and cancers
active transportmoving substances against a concentration gradient (from low to high); requires energy of ATP
amphitrichoushaving a tuft of flagella at each end of a cell

axial filamentsflagella-like structures found in spirochetes that enable them to move in a corkscrew motion; wrap around the cell underneath a sheath
bacillusrod-shaped bacterium
bacteriakingdom Monera; unicellular procaryotes
binary fissionmethod of bacterial reproduction
capsulea glycocalyx firmly attached to the cell
coccussphere-shaped bacterium
diffusionmovement of substances from an area of high concentration to low concentration
diplococcusbacteria found in connected pairs
E colinew strain causes bloody diarrhea from eating undercooked meat
Ehrlichmade a “magic bullet” substance to treat syphillis
ebolahemorrhagic fever which causes bleeding and blood clotting
endosporesresting cells formed by some Gram positive bacteria which can survive extreme environmental conditions
endotoxinthe lipid A portion of the outer membrane of some bacteria; causes fever and shock
Flemingdiscovered penicillin
fimbriaehair-like appendages that are shorter than flagella used for attachment to surfaces
flagellalong appendages that propel a bacterium
fungieucaryotes; chitin in cell wall; can be unicellular or multicellular
Gram negativedescription of bacteria which have just a few layers of peptidoglycan covered by an outer membrane
glycocalyxgeneral term for substances that surround a bacterial cell.
group translocationform of active transport in bacteria in which substances are altered during transport; energy from PEP
Hookehe first to observe remnants of individual plant cells in cork
hantavirus pulmonary syndromeviral disease characterized by respiratory failure; carried by deer mice
hypertonica solution which has more solute (and less water) in the solution than in the cell placed in the solution; water will leave the cell and it will shrink
hypotonica solution which has less solute (and more water) in the solution than in the cell placed in the solution; water will enter the cell until it bursts
isotonica solution in which solutes are the same concentration on both sides of the membrane; no net change in water on either side
Jennervaccinated for smallpox using cowpox
Kochproved that a bacterium caused anthrax; developed postulates
Leeuwenhoekfirst to observe living cells under microscope
Linnaeusestalished system of scientific naming with genus and species
Listerused disinfectant on surgical wounds
lophotrichoushaving a 2 or more flagella at a single pole
lysozymebreaks down sugar linkages in peptidoglycan
monotrichoushaving a single polar flagellum
mycologystudy of fungi
osmosisnet movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration of water to low concentration of water
Pasteurdisproved spontaneous generation; helped develop aseptic technique; invented process to slow down food spoilage
penicillinbreaks down peptide linkages in peptidoglycan
peptidoglycansubstance that composes the bacterial cell wall; rods of the repeating disaccharides (NAM and NAG) crosslinked by polypeptides
peritrichoushaving flagella distributed over the entire cell
phosphatesubstance contained in metachromatic granules
pilistructures used to join bacteria prior to transfer of DNA from one cell to another
plasmidsmall, circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; replicate independently of bacterial chromosome and contain genes not crucial for survival under normal conditions
prionthe cause of bovine spongiform encephelopathy; the technical term for infectious protein
protozoaunicellular eucaryotes; kingdom Protista; variety of means of locomotion
ribosomesite of protein synthesis
sarcinaecube of 8 spheres
slime layera glycocalyx loosely attached to a cell
spirochetespiral or corkscrew-shaped bacterium
staphylococcusbacteria found as clusters of spheres
streptobacillusbacteria found as chains of rods joined end to end
streptococcusbacteria found as chains of spheres
Virchowarticulated concept of biogenesis that living cells come from preexisting living cells
vibriocomma-shaped bacterium
virusescontain a core of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat; can only reproduce in a host cell