What fallacy best describes the flaw in reasoning of the following argument?
My last doctor was arrogant and greedy since she overcharged me for all office visits. Thus, all doctors are arrogant and greedy.
According to your instructor, people can be persuaded by ‘bad’ arguments that contain some type of fallacy.
Logical argument and persuasion are essentially the same thing.
That equals should be treated equally is a basic precept of the principle of autonomy
Nonmaleficence is the bedrock precept of codes of conduct for health care professionals.
What fallacy does the following argument commit?
We cannot legalize marijuana for medical use. If we do so, everyone in the country will start getting high.
The principle of respect for autonomy places no restraints on what can be done to an autonomous person.
if people’s moral judgments differ from culture to culture, moral norms are relative to culture.
All religious people accept the divine command theory
Moral premises can be called into question by showing that they
Conflict with credible principles, theories, or judgments
Classic utilitarianism depends heavily on a strong sense of impartiality.
Any moral theory that is inconsistent with the facts of the moral life is
Consequentialist moral theories insist that the rightness of actions depends solely on
The consequences or results
Natural law tradition resolves dilemmas through the principle of utility
Kant’s principle of respect for persons says that we should always treat persons
Never merely as a means to an end
Underlying natural law theory is the belief that
All of nature, including humankind, is teleological
Kant says that through reason and reflection we can derive our duties from
The categorical imperative
Rule-utilitarianism is the idea that the rightness of actions depends solely on the relative good produced by individual actions.
which one of the following theories typically falls under the category of deontology?
Natural law theory
Some people criticize utilitarianism for being too demanding because this theory reaches the conclusion that we ought to give up buying some luxury goods such as the next iPhone and, instead, to use that money to enhance the well-being of homeless animals or people
Which of the following theorists would most strongly support a minimal conception of the state?
According to your instructor, what is one of the advantages of Rawls’ theory of justice?
It would offset some of the impacts of the natural lottery.
According to Nozick, the subject of justice in holdings consists of three major topics. Which of the following is NOT one of those major topics?
The appropriation of unheld things
The rationing of health care has never been tried in the United States.
The utilitarian purpose behind using QALYs is ___________.
To do the most good with the resources available
The theory of justice insisting that the benefits and burdens of society should be distributed through the fair workings of a free market and the exercise of liberty rights of noninterference is
Norman Daniels believes that a strong right to health care can be derived from _________________.
Fair equality of opportunity
Rationing on the level of the total health care system is known as
The theory of justice most likely to insist on a system of universal health care is
Some argue that QALYs are unfair to
Old people and the diabled
In general, Kantian ethics views paternalism as
A violation of atonomy
A DNR is directive telling the medical staff to
Forgo CPR on a patient
Generally, Kantian ethics rejects
The issue of paternalism usually arises from conflicts between patients’ autonomy and
Physicians’ duty of beneficence
According to Roman Catholic doctrine, a hopelessly ill patient has the right to refuse extraordinary life-sustaining treatments.
The case of Elizabeth Bouvia concerned
Refusal of treatment
Physicians are obliged to regard every patient request as legitimate
The case of Helga Wanglie concerned what some have referred to as
Since the 1970s, several children have died after their parents refused medical treatment because of religious beliefs
The overriding of a person’s actions or choices even though he or she is substantially autonomous is called
Advocates of full disclosure insist that informed patients are
The law recognizes that the duty to respect confidentiality has exceptions.
The main argument in favor of truth-telling rests on the physician’s duty of beneficence.
In the Hippocratic Oath, the physician’s respect for confidentiality is
The Hippocratic Oath insists on a strong duty of truth-telling
The case of Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California concerned a conflict between
A duty of confidentiality and a duty to warn
The physician’s duties of confidentiality and preventing harm are
Sometimes in conflict in HIV cases
The authority of persons to control who may possess and use information about themselves is considered
A right to privacy
Many skeptics of full disclosure have argued that physicians have no duty to tell patients the truth because
Patients are incapable of understanding the truth
Dan Ariely argues that while most people lie and cheat, they find ways to rationalize their dishonesty, and as a result, they are still able to think of themselves as ‘honest’ people.
The requirement of informed consent can be derived directly from Kantian ethics.
Many critics see huge discrepancies between the ethical ideal of informed consent and the laws or rules meant to implement it.
From a strictly Kantian viewpoint, therapeutic privilege is
Informed consent requires that patients understand all information given to them.
The action of an autonomous, informed person agreeing to submit to medical treatment or experimentation is known as
The patient’s voluntary and deliberate giving up of the right of informed consent is called
Patients are legitimately judged incompetent in cases of
Mental retardation and dementia
Physicians are often not obligated to provide disclosure in cases of
In their article, Faden and Beauchamp argue that Sense1 and Sense2 of informed consent are virtually synonymous.
In Canterbury v. Spence, the court essentially adopted the transparency standard as the appropriate standard for disclosure regarding the risks and benefits of treatmen
The infamous experiment to study the damaging effects of untreated syphilis in 600 poor black men is known as
The first article of the Nuremberg Code concerns
There is substantial agreement in bioethics on the general moral principles that should apply to human research
An indispensible feature of most clinical trials is
Usually the safety and effectiveness of a treatment can be established by a single clinical trial
The use of placebos in control groups is
Often cause for serious moral concern
It is generally understood that consent to do research on children is not required.
Out of the post-World War II trial of Nazi doctors came the Nuremberg Code.
What was the main ethical criticism by opponents such as Marcia Angell of the AZT trials in Africa?
Some of the participants were denied the standard of care since the control group was given a placebo.
What is NOT one of the three basic ethical principles covered in the Belmont Report?
Cohen maintains that there should be a consistency between our beliefs and our behaviors. As a result, if we maintain that animal testing is wrong because it increases suffering, then we should also become vegetarians since slaughtering animals also causes them a lot of pain.
Shanks, Greek & Greek argue that animal research must be stopped for ethical reasons.
Hettinger claims that it is untenable to maintain that all humans have moral agency, but no animals do, because some animals have greater cognitive and intentional skills than do some humans such as the severely mentally impaired.
Hettinger defines himself as a speciesist.
Shanks, Greek and Greek use the drug Thalidomide to reinforce their claim that animal models are not predictive for humans responses.
Singer maintains that equality depends on factual differences, and differences in ability or merit, for instance, justify differences in considering interests.
What best characterizes the belief that humans are superior based on the fact that they are members of the species homo sapiens?
What term captures the idea that we should, when possible, use alternative methods to animal testing?
On what property does Singer base the equal consideration of interests?
If we took Singer’s conclusion seriously, what of the following would be true?
We would have to consider the interests of animals before making choices that affect them.
Peter Singer maintains it is morally impermissible to use IVF when we are dealing with issues such as over population and the fact that many abandoned children in foreign countries need to be adopted.
Laura Purdy, arguing from a feminist perspective, maintains that paid surrogacy is akin to baby selling, and is a practice that exploits women
The uniting of sperm and egg in a laboratory dish, instead of inside a woman’s body, is called
In vitro fertilization
Some have objected to IVF because of its potential for causing birth defects and disease in children.
Some argue against surrogacy by claiming that it amounts to
IVF cycles pose health risks for both woman and child.
Fertility clinics store frozen embryos but never destroy them.
Surrogate arrangements are generally simple and legally straightforward.
Mary Anne Warren argues that IVF comes with substantial risks and burdens and that women are too constrained or coerced by society to decide about the technology for themselves.
According to John Robertson, procreative liberty entails certain privileges. According to his view, what is NOT one of them?
According to John Robertson, procreative liberty entails certain privileges. According to his view, what is NOT one of them?
The use of genetic information by employers, insurance companies, and others to discriminate against or stigmatize people is known as
Some argue that gene therapy should not be permitted because it amounts to
Even when genetic tests correctly predict a genetic disorder, they usually cannot foretell how severe its symptoms will be or when they will appear.
McMahan maintains that discrimination or disrespect for persons is not entailed by genetic testing.
Many gene therapies have been approved for routine use.
Those who believe that embryos have the moral status of persons are likely to view embryonic stem cell research as
Physicians have debated whether they should reveal to a patient the results of a genetic test showing that he or she is at high risk for an unpreventable, untreatable disease.
Negative eugenics is widely regarded as
Permissible or obligatory
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is
A common charge against genetic testing to prevent birth impairments is that it amounts to disrespect or discrimination against
People with disabillities
Some argue against active voluntary euthanasia by advancing a distinction between intending someone’s death and not intending but foreseeing it.
The strongest argument offered to support active voluntary euthanasia is derived from
The principle of autonomy
There is considerable agreement about the moral rightness of allowing a patient to die.
Performing an action that directly causes someone to die—what most people think of as “mercy killing”—is called
James Rachels argues that there is no morally significant difference between killing and letting die.
Scientific research on whether policies permitting euthanasia or assisted suicide lead to unjustified killing is
Proponents of active voluntary euthanasia believe that the right to die
Does not compel others
Doctors are unanimous in their rejection of physician-assisted suicide.
Most ethicists agree that the horrific suffering of dying patients can always be relieved without resort to lethal means.
As mentioned in the lecture, what is one disadvantage of using the higher brain death criteria to determine death?
Such individuals may be capable of spontaneous cardiopulmonary function.
Cullen and Klein maintain that if a person explicitly states that s/he does not wish to know the truth about his/her medical conditions, then the physician should respect the patient’s wishes, and refrain from providing the unwanted information.
Gerald Dworkin accepts Mill’s harm principle. As a result, he believes that a government cannot ethically restrict a rational person’s liberty for paternalistic reasons. State paternalism is only justified when it applies to children and other people who may be lacking in rationality.
Using Rawls’s theory of justice, Daniels creates an argument for a positive right to health care that aims to protect and to maintain normal species functioning. Considering this, what of the below scenarios is the most likely to be covered under such a right?
The right of a person to receive assisted reproductive services due to infertility.
Using utilitarianism as a theory of justice, all economic or social inequalities would be deemed to be unjust.
Using libertarianism, one could easily construct an argument against the right to universal health care funded by taxpayers’ dollars.
According to the first version of the categorical imperative, which is sometimes called the principle of universalizability, you should _________________________________.
act only according to maxims that could be universal laws
According to virtue ethics, actions are right because____________.
they would be performed by a moral exemplar such as the Dalai Lama
According to the second version of the categorical imperative often called the principle of respect for persons, it wrong to treat people solely as a means. This entails that medical research is wrong because these people are being used, even if they gave informed consent.
From the below, choose the fallacy that best describes this type of reasoning:
You shouldn’t listen to Dr. Smith on the negative health effects of cigarette smoking. You know she is a smoker after all.
The following is a normative ethical claim:
Mary is terminally ill and wants to die.
According to Vaughan, the principle of nonmaleficence, which is captured in the maxim “Above all, do no harm”, can be derived from the principle of beneficence.
Kant would maintain that hiring a cab driver to take us across town violates the second version of the categorical imperative because it treats the cab driver as a means.
Kant maintains that lying is prima facie wrong. However, he understands that there may be some situations such as the inquiring murderer where it is okay to lie with the intention to save another person’s life.
The following argument is valid:
If I get 95% on this exam, I will get an A.
I received an A.
Thus, I received 95%.
An ethical relativist can consistently maintain that all people should be tolerant.