Bio Evolution

Evolution
The process of change in the inherited characteristics within populations over generations such that new types of organisms develop from preexisting types

Charles Darwin
Scientist who discovered evolution

Species
a group of organisms that can reproduce and have fertile offspring

5 Principles of evolution
1. Variations exist in all populations
2. Some variations are advantageous
3. All species over-reproduce
4. Yet, numbers remain stable
5. Only those with the best variations survive- pass traits to offspring

Linnaeus
Classification system from kingdom to species

Lamarack
Environment change leads us to use or disuse of a structure

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specie
Classification system

On the origin of species
The title of Darwin’s book

Descent with modification
all species descended from common ancestors, and that natural selection is the mechanism for evolution

Natural selection
Organisms in a population adapt to their environment as the proportion of individuals with genes for favorable traits increases. Those individuals that pass on more genes are considered to have greater fitness

Catastrophism, gradualism, uniformitarianism
Three theories of geologic change

Uniformitarianism
The prevailing theory of geologic change

There are no outside effects
Why did the study of organisms on islands help support Darwin’s ideas

The newer fossils at the top were more complex
How did the study of fossils help support Darwin’s ideas about evolution?

Homologous structures
Features that are similar in structure but appear in different organisms and have different functions

Vestigial structures
Remnants of organs or structures that has a function in an early ancestor

Have a common ancestor
If two animals both have gill slits that later develop into structures of ears and throats in mammals, what does this suggest about the relationship between all vertebrates?

Analogus
Resemble each other externally, but not internally

Bat and butterfly
Example of analogous structures

Divergence
Had a common ancestor; one species led to many species

Convergence
Evolution selects for ability

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