Bio Basic Chemistry Study Guide

matter
the substance(s) of which any physical object consists or is composed

element
a form of matter that occupies space, has mass and cannot be broken apart into a different form of matter by ordinary, physical or chemical means

compound
molecule composed of two or more different elements in unvarying proportions

protons
positively charged particles of the atomic nucleus

neutrons
uncharged particles of the nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen

electrons
negatively charged particles that can occupy a volume of space around an atomic nucleus

shell/orbital
the region around a nucleus that indicates probable location or an electron

ion
an element where your atoms (electrons) change

isotope
different number of neutrons/types of atoms in one element

activation energy
the minimum amount of energy required to activate atoms to a point where they can go through physical transport

valence electron
an electron associated with an atoman that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond which can determine its chemical properties

ionic bond
these form when one atom gives up an electron to another, thus creating a positive ion that is attracted to a negative ion

covalent bond
forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

polar covalent
a bond in which electrons are shared between elements having a difference in electronegativity

adhesion
the process of adhering or sticking to a surface or object

cohesion
the action of something forming a unite whole

surface tension
the force that causes the molecules on the surface of a liquid to be pushed together and form a layer

pH
a scale ranging from 0-14 comapring the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) and hydroxide ions (OH) in a solution

acid
substance that donates H+ when dissolved in water

base
substance that accepts H+ when dissolved in water

enzyme
a substance in animals and plants that helps to cause natural processes

nucleus
the central and most important part of an object, forming the basis for its activity and growth.

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