Bible Study

Ark of the Covenant
the golden box in which the Israelites believed that God’s presence dwelt; held 10 Commandments; lost when Babylonian king destroyed temple

Revelation
God’s word revealed to His chosen people

Salvation History
the great story of the Jews; the central theme of the Bible; it is broken but will be fixed through the covenants; the way in which God has worked with free and fallen human beings to rescue them from the results of the fall (it is good, it is broken, there is hope)

Historical/Critical Method
method for interpreting the Bible looks at the text historically

Etiology
assignment of a cause for a custom, name, etc. (ex. Creation)

Genesis
1st book in Bible, aka the Patriarchal Period, earliest traditions of God’s revelation to ancestors of Israel; ends with them living in Egypt and begins with creation

Exodus
2nd book in Bible, Israelites leave Egypt, Mt. Sinai, spend 40 years in desert w/ Moses, understand they are God’s “Chosen People”

Deuteronomy
“Second Law” starts w/ farewell to Moses before entering promised land; written during exile

Deuteronomic History
written by Deuteronomic Historian; composed during exile; tries to understand what went wrong; includes Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings

Prophet
God’s messengers

Ezekiel
sees that there is hope unlike Deuteronomy; still in personal relationship with God; he’s a prophet during the exile

Daniel
food test in king’s palace shows God on their side still; looking at exile in a positive light b/c things must get better

Exile
First Exile=Egypt Second=Babylon

Nehemiah
return to Judah where he is a priest who keeps people on straight and narrow; supervises rebuilding of the Temple

Hagar
Sarai’s servant who makes Ishmael with Abram with Sarai’s blessing so that he will have a son; runs away w/ Ishmael 2 but God still blesses Ishmael

Eden
garden of creation where God made Adam and Eve

Noah
righteous man saved from the Flood by God; built an ark to save the animals and his family; made 1st covenant w/ God (rainbow)

Covenant
first occurs with Noah; an agreement between two people or groups that defines their relationship and the mutual rights and responsibilities of both parties are; a contract or treaty with promises and conditions on both sides

Abraham
covenant w/ God (Land, Sons, Great Nation) to whom all of his descendants is promised; all families on earth will find blessing through you

Moses
survives killing of baby male Israelites in Egypt; raised in Pharaoh’s house; sides with origin (Israelites); flees; God (burning bush and YHWH “I am who am”) sends him back to Egypt to save his people; receives 10 commandments on Mt. Sinai; doesn’t enter Promised Land

Passover
specific requirements on food and ritual; Angel of Death passes over; caused Egyptians to beg Israelites to leave

Sinai
where Moses receives 10 commandments and God descends in form of a cloud

Torah
Jewish version of Bible including Pentateuch

Holiness/Holy
to be different; to be set apart

Sarah
Abraham’s wife

Saul
Chosen by Samuel to be 1st king, anointed, was looking for lost donkeys; ‘a nobody’; lets power get to head and tries to do things his own way; doesn’t need God

David
Chosen by Samuel to be second king, youngest son, establishes the capital in Jerusalem; court harpist; brave warrior to fight Goliath; brings Ark w/ him to Jerusalem; is a ladies man; begs for forgiveness for sins wants to follow God and be good not just be king

Solomon
son of David, great wisdom, builds Temple to House of Covenant; last king of Israel before kingdom falls apart; very wealthy; LOTS of wives

henotheism
there are many gods, but this one is MY God

Babylon
conquered Jerusalem and enslaved the Jews through God’s wrath

Babylonian Exile
after reign of Solomon Israel splits in two (Northern Israel and Southern Judah) NK is conquered by Assyria and lost forever; Judah survives but brought into Babylonian captivity; Judah does not return from exile until Persia conquers Babylon and Cyrus frees them

Second Temple
Temple rebuilt after Babylonian Exile; only to be destroyed again by Rome and never rebuilt; built by Nehemiah

Pharisees
Rabbis who taught in synagogues; believe Messiah would be a teacher; and taught that one had to follow the precepts of the Law

Sadducees
in Temple Council w/ high priests & Sanhedrin; believed Messiah would be a high priest; kept balance between Judea and Rome; “let Temple Council handle it”

Essenes
sect of Jews (discovered in Dead Sea Scrolls); lived in wilderness (John the Baptist) thought Messiah would be heavenly figure

Messiah
The Holy One (Hebrew) (Anointed One=English, Christ=Greek)

YHWH
sacred Jewish name for God meaning “I am”

Zealots
“warriors” terrorists who rebelled against Roman authority; believed Messiah would be a military/political leader

Rome
Overthrew Greeks; tolerated the Jewish Society

Judah
southern kingdom made up of 2 tribes (Judah and Benjamin) contained Jerusalem and was invaded by Babylon

synagogue
run by Pharisees; Jewish houses of prayer

Hellenism/Hellenization
period of spreading of Greek culture and language and rule; trouble for Jews cause of no mingle rule

Mt. Sinai
where Moses receives 10 commandments from God in Exodus

Theophany
appearance of God

Isaiah
corruption of Judah… thought it all was going to get destroyed