Behavioral School of Management Theory

Problems of Classical Management Theory
Standardization; created attitude that humans = machines
Neoclassical Theory
(focuses on human side of management) includes behavioral sciences to use employees to; focuses on best way to motivate factors such as, employee relationships & intrinsic value needed to be determined
two main sources of neoclassical theory
the human relations movement and the behavioral movement
the human relations movement
(Elton Mayo & Roethlisberger’s Hawthorne studies) worker productivity increase due to a feeling of value when management and coworkers show additional attention (social/human needs of workers)
the behavioral movement
ways to help employees find personal satisfaction in their jobs by providing meaningful work
behavioral movement leaders
(Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg, and David McClelland) human desire to work towards personal growth, accomplishment, and achievement.
According to neoclassical management theory, managers are encouraged to
create supportive social systems and facilitate the personal development of their workers
Behavioral Management is the theory that
managers should better understand the human aspect to workers and treat employees as important assets to achieve goals
the way a person conducts themselves towards others
intrinsic motivations
Autonomy and empowerment
Social status
Personal relationships with co-workers
the internal process that directs enduring behavior
Hawthorne Effect
a psychological phenomenon in which participants in behavioral studies change their behavior or performance in response to being observed by the individual conducting the study (more attention = higher productivity)
Hawthorne studies
designed to find ways to increase worker productivity.
Needs theories
attempt to identify internal factors that motivate an individual’s behavior and are based on the premise that people are motivated by unfulfilled needs
psychological or physiological insufficiencies that provoke some type of behavioral response
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
proposed that motivation is the result of a person’s attempt at fulfilling five basic needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization
Physiological needs
those needs required for human survival such as air, food, water, shelter, clothing and sleep
Safety needs
those needs that provide a person with a sense of security and well-being (financial security, job security, good health, protection).
Social needs
(love and belonging) refer to the need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance (affection, intimacy)
Esteem needs
refer to the need for self-esteem and respect (self-respect > others respect) (praise & recognition)
Self-actualization needs
describe a person’s need to reach his or her full potential (inviting employees to participate in decision-making and giving them flexibility and autonomy in their jobs)
progression principle
suggests that lower-level needs must be met before higher-level needs
deficit principle
claims that a once a need is satisfied, it is no longer a motivator because an individual will take action only to satisfied unmet needs (inviting employees to participate in decision-making and giving them flexibility and autonomy in their jobs
Douglas McGregor
proposed that there were two types of managers: ones who assumed a negative view of their employees, also known as the Theory X and others who assumed a positive view of workers, or the Theory Y manager
Theory X
belief of managers who believe workers:
hate work
dislike change
are lazy
are self-centered
These managers believes his role as a manager is to coerce and control his employees to work towards organizational goals
Theory Y
belief of managers who believe workers:
accept work
driven to work
full of potential
these managers assumes it is there role as a manager to help develop that potential so that the employee can work towards a common organizational goal
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
an employee will act just as the manager assumed he or she would due to the manager’s own actions and behaviors.

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