Becoming a Teacher 9th Edition
The right of teachers to teach, free from external constraint, censorship, or interference.
Academic Learning Time
The amount of time students spend working on academic tasks with a high level of success (80 percent or higher).
Early secondary schools with broader and more practical curricula than those found in grammar schools of the previous era.
A national network of schools that provide enriched, rigorous, curricula to speed up the learning of students at risk.
The process of providing academically enriched programs to meet the needs of intellectually advanced students-for example, early entrance, grade skipping, rigorous curricula, credit by examination, and early entrance to college.
The practice of holding teachers responsible for adhering to high professional and moral standards and creating effective learning environments for all students.
The continuing gap in academic achievement between White students and Hispanic, African American, and American Indian/Alaska Native students.
Classroom-based study, by teachers, of how to improve their instruction.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
A provision of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requiring that schools provide evidence each year that students are making “adequate yearly progress”
The branch of axiology concerned with values related to beauty and art.
Schools that focus on African American history and culture for African American pupils.
The amount of time teachers allocate for instruction in various areas of the curriculum.
An alternative way of measuring the performance of students who are unable to participate in traditional approaches to assessment.
Approaches that assess students’ ability to complete real-life tasks rather than merely regurgitate facts.
A small, highly individualized school separate from a regular school; designed to meet the needs of students at risk.
Alternative Teacher Certification
A provision allowing people who have completed college but not a teacher education program to become certified teachers.
Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 97)
Amendments to IDEA that emphasize educational outcomes for students with disabilities and provide greater access through changes in eligibility requirements. IEP guidelines, public and private placements, student discipline guidelines, and procedural safeguards.
American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
A national professional association for teachers, affiliated with the AFL-CIO
A rating scale, or scoring guide, for evaluating part of a student’s product or performance.
A professional organization for educators interested in school improvement at all levels (formerly, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development -ASCD)
An approach to classroom discipline requiring that teachers establish firm, clear guidelines for student behavior and follow through with consequences for misbehavior.
The process of gathering information related to how much students have learned.
Technological advances (usually computer-based) that help exceptional students learn and communicate.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
A learning disability characterized by difficulty in concentrating on learning.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A learning disability characterized by difficulty in remaining still so that one can concentrate on learning.
An approach to assessing students learning that requires them to solve problems or work on tasks that approximate as much as possible those they will encounter beyond the classroom.
Authentic Learning Tasks
Learning activities that enable students to see the connections between classroom learning and the world beyond the classroom.
The study of values, including the identification of criteria for determining what is valuable.
A movement begun in the mid-1970s to establish the basic skills of reading ,writing, speaking, and computation as the core of the school curriculum.
Based on behavioristic psychology, this philosophical orientation maintains that environmental factors shape people’s behavior.
Statements of what students should understand and be able to do at specific grade levels or developmental stages.
Between-class ability grouping
The practice of grouping students at the middle and high school levels for instruction on the basis of ability or achievement, often called tracking.
The ability to function effectively in two or more linguistic and cultural groups.
A curriculum for non-English-speaking and English-speaking students in which two languages are used for instruction and biculturalism is emphasized.
A blending of online and face-to-face instruction.
A form of federal aid given directly to the states, which a state or local education agency may spend as it wishes with few limitations.
A high school scheduling arrangement that provides longer blocks of time each class period, with fewer periods each day.
An online journal constructed by an individual and reacted to by those who visit the blog (short for web log).
A blueprint for reform: the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
The Obama administration’s plan for revising the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; released in 2010, the Blueprint supports state and local efforts to ensure that all students graduate prepared for college and a career.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
A 1954 landmark U.S. Supreme Court case rejecting the separate but equal doctrine used to prevent African Americans from attending schools with whites.
A 1974 law, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, granting parents of students under 18 and students over 18 the right to examine their school records.
A classroom in which the teacher communicates clearly an attitude of caring about students’ learning and their overall well-being.
State-appropriated funds to cover the costs of educating students with special needs.
The act of removing from circulation printed material judged to be libelous, vulgar, or obscene.
An approach to education that emphasizes the teaching of values, moral reasoning, and the development of “good” character.
An agreement between a charter school’s founders and its sponsors specifying how the school will operate and what learning outcomes students will master.
Independent schools, often founded by teachers, that are given a charter to operate by a school district, state, or national government, with the provision that students must demonstrate mastery of predetermined outcomes.
Chief state school officer
The chief administrator of a state department of education and head of the state board of education, often called the commissioner of education or superintendent of public instruction.
An approach to classroom management, developed by psychiatrist William Glasser, based on a belief that students will usually make good choices (i.e., behave in an acceptable manner) if they experience success in the classroom and know that teachers care about them.
The atmosphere or quality of life in a classroom, determined by how individuals interact with one another.
The way of life characteristic of a classroom group; determined by the social dimensions of the group and the physical characteristics of the setting.
Day-to-day teacher control of student behavior and learning, including discipline.
How teachers and students in a school are grouped for instruction and how time is allocated in classrooms.
A four-step model supervisors follow in making teacher performance evaluations.
Coalition of Essential Schools
A national network of public and private high schools that have restructured according to nine Common Principles.
Code of ethics
A set of guidelines that defines appropriate behavior for professionals.
The process of acquiring the intellectual ability to learn from interaction with one’s environment.
The study of the learning process that focuses on how individuals manipulate symbols and process information.
The practice of working together, sharing decision making, and solving problems among professionals.
An approach in which a classroom teacher meets with one or more other professionals (such as a special educator, school psychologist, or resource teacher) to focus on the learning needs of one or more students.
A process followed by employers and employees in negotiating salaries, hours, and working conditions; in most states, school boards must negotiate contracts with teacher organizations.
Cultures that tend to emphasize group membership and a sense of “we” rather than “I’- in contrast to individualistic cultures that emphasize the individual and his or her success and achievement.
A spirit of cooperation and mutual helpfulness among professionals.
Collegial support team (CST)
A team of teachers-created according to subject area, grade level, or teacher interests and expertise- who support one another’s professional growth.
Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education
An NEA committee that called for a high school curriculum designed to accommodate individual differences in scholastic ability and based on seven educational goals, or “cardinal principles”
Committee of Fifteen
An NEA committee that recommended an academically rigorous curriculum for elementary students (1895)
Committee of Ten
An NEA committee that recommended an academically rigorous curriculum for high school students. (1893)
Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI)
A set of voluntary K-12 curriculum standards developed and endorsed by 48 of the 50 states.
Free state-supported schools that provide education for all students.
Compensatory education programs
Federally funded educational programs designed to meet the needs of low-ability students from low-income families.
Concrete operations stage
The stage of cognitive development (7-11 years of age) proposed by Jean Piaget in which the individual develops the ability to use logical thought to solve concrete problems.
An approach to classroom management that calls for the teacher to communicate to misbehaving student(s) a direct, clear statement of the problem; maintain direct eye contact with the student(s); and insist upon correct behavior.
A psychological orientation that views learning as an active process in which learners construct understanding of the material they learn- in contrast to the view that teachers transmit academic content to students in small segments.
A method of teaching based on students’ prior knowledge of the topic and the processes they use to construct meaning.
The content- or knowledge and skills-students should acquire in various academic disciplines.
An approach to education in which students work in small groups, or teams, sharing the work and helping one another complete assignments.
Laws limiting the use of photocopies, videotapes, and computer software programs.
Physical punishment applied to a student by a school employee as a disciplinary measure.
An arrangement whereby two or more teachers teach together in the same classroom.
Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP)
An accrediting agency formed in 2010 by the merger of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC)
Assessments of achievement that compare students’ performance with clearly defined criteria or standards.
An educational orientation that emphasizes education as a way to promote social justice and equity for those who do not enjoy positions of power and influence in society.
A tutoring arrangement in which older students tutor younger students; evidence indicates that cross-age tutoring has positive effects on the attitudes and achievement of tutee and tutor.
The ability to communicate cross-culturally and the willingness to learn about students’ diverse cultural backgrounds.
An overall sense of oneself, derived from the extent of one’s participation in various subcultures within the national macroculture.
The preservation of cultural differences among groups of people within one society. This view is in contrast to the melting-pot theory that says that ethnic cultures should melt into one.
The way of life common to a group of people; includes knowledge deemed important, shared meanings, norms, values, attitudes, ideals, and view of the world.
The school experiences, both planned and unplanned, that enhance (and sometimes impede) the education and growth of students.
The process of ensuring that the content of curricula and textbooks reflects desired learning outcomes, or academic standards, for students.
A document that provides guidelines, instructional and assessment strategies, resources, and models for teachers to use as they develop curricula aligned with academic standards.
Using information and/or communication technologies to harass or threaten an individual or group.
Colonial schools, usually held in the homes of widows or housewives, for teaching children basic reading, writing, and mathematical skills.
A classroom in which the teacher’s leadership style encourages students to take more power and responsibility for their learning.
An organizational arrangement for schools in which students move from classroom to classroom for instruction in different subject areas.
The process of eliminating schooling practices based on the separation of racial groups
The gap between people at different socioeconomic levels and their access to, and use of, information technologies and the Internet.
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
An amendment to the Copyright Act of 1998, making it illegal to reproduce copyrighted material in digital format.
A systematic instructional method focusing on the transmission of knowledge and skills from the teacher to the students.
An approach to teaching that gives students opportunities to inquire into subjects so that they “discover” knowledge for themselves.
The involuntary termination of a teacher’s employment, termination must be made for a legally defensible reason with the protection of due process.
The use of technology such as video transmissions that enables students to receive instruction at multiple, often remote, sites.
Differences among people in regard to gender, race, ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status.
A set of specific guidelines that must be followed to protect individuals from arbitrary, capricious treatment by those in authority.
Early childhood education
Educational programs for children from birth to age 8, also termed pre-K education.
Liability for injury that results from the failure of a teacher, school, or school district to provide a student with adequate instruction, guidance, counseling, and/or supervision.
A set of ideas and beliefs about education that guide the professional behavior of educators.
How people use power, influence, and authority to affect instructional and curricular practices within a school or school system.
Educational reform movement
A comprehensive effort made during the 1980’s and into the 1990’s to improve schools and the preparation of teachers.
Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA)
A 1981 federal law giving the states a broad range of choices for spending federal aid on education.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142)
A 1975 federal act that guarantees a free and appropriate education to all children with handicaps (often referred to as the mainstreaming law or Public Law 94-142)
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Part of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society Program, this act allocated federal funds on the basis of the number of poor children in school districts.
Temporary, substandard certification requirements set by a state in response to a shortage of teachers.
The capacity to be aware of and to manage one’s feelings….
English-language learners (ELLs)
Students whose first language is not English.
Federal programs to meet the educational needs of special populations.
A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of knowledge and what it means to know something.
An online site where an individual can place products that represent accomplishments in an area of interest.
Formulated in part as a response to progressivism, this philosophical orientation holds that a core of common knowledge about the real world should be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplines way.
Problem situations in which an ethical response is difficult to determine; that is, no single response can be called “right” or “wrong”.
A branch of philosophy concerned with principles of conduct and determining what is good and evil, right and wrong, in human behavior.
Individuals within a larger culture who share a racial or cultural identity and a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes
A shared feeling of common identity that derives, in part, from a common ancestry, common values, and common experiences.
Making judgments about, or assigning a value to, measurements of students’ learning.
Students whose growth and development deviate from the norm to the extent that their educational needs can be met more effectively through a modification of regular school programs.
A philosophical orientation that emphasizes the individual’s experiences and maintains that each individual must determine his or her own meaning of existence.
Expanded learning time (ELT) schools
Schools that add time to the school day as a way to increase student achievement, provide opportunities for enrichment, and partner with community organizations.
Expenditure per pupil
The amount of money spent on each pupil in a school, school district, state, or nation; usually computed according to average daily attendance.
The behavior, attitudes, and knowledge that a school intends to teach students.
A popular form of online social networking that people use to communicate with a network of friends who have common interests.
The right of an individual to use copyrighted material in a reasonable manner without the copyright holder’s consent, provided that use meets certain criteria.
Schools established in the early nineteenth century to train women for higher education and public service outside the home.
A philosophical orientation that emphasizes caring, respect for individual differences, and collaboration to achieve the aims of a democratic and just society.
Opportunities for teachers-in-training to experience firsthand the world of the teacher by observing, tutoring, and instructing small groups.
Formal operations stage
The stage of cognitive development (11 to 15 years of age) proposed by Jean Piaget in which cognitive abilities reach their highest level of development.
An assessment, or diagnosis, of students’ learning for the purpose of planning instruction.
Schools that are operated, for profit, by private educational corporations.
A U.S. government agency to provide assistance to former slaves after the Civil War….
Freedom of expression
Freedom, granted by the First Amendment to the Constitution, to express one’s beliefs.
Benefits (i.e. medical insurance, retirement, and tax-deferred investment opportunities) that are given to teachers in addition to base salary.
State programs to ensure statewide financial equity by setting the same per-pupil expenditure level for all schools and districts.
The policy and process of including exceptional learners in general education classrooms.
Full-service community schools
Schools that provide students and their families with medical, social, and human services, in addition to their regular educational programs.
Subtle bias or discrimination on the basis of gender; reduces the likelihood that the target of the bias will develop to the full extent of his or her capabilities.
Education that is free of bias or discrimination on the basis of gender.
A teacher professional development model that empowers students to play a major role in integrating technology in the school.
G.I.Bill of Rights
A 1944 federal law that provides veterans with payments for tuition and room and board at colleges and universities and special schools;.formally known as the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act…
Gifted and talented
Exceptional learners who demonstrate high intelligence, high creativity, high achievement, or special talents.
A formal complaint filed by an employee against his or her employer or supervisor.
An approach to teaching in which the teacher facilitates learning by creating an environment that allows students to determine what they will study and how.
The behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge that the school culture unintentionally teaches students.
Hierarchy of needs
A set of seven needs, from the basic needs for survival and safety to the need for self-actualization, that motivate human behavior as identified by Abraham Maslow.
Highly qualified teachers (HQTs)
Teachers who have the following qualifications as contained in No Child Left Behind legislation: bachelor’s degree, full state certification, and knowledge of the subject(s) they teach.
High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America
A book by Ernest Boyer calling for a strengthened academic core curriculum in high schools (1983).
Achievement tests that have high-stakes consequences for students, teachers, and administrators- for example, a test that determines if a student is eligible to graduate or whether educators receive merit pay increases.
A rating scale, or scoring guide, for evaluating a student’s overall product or performance.
A copy of the alphabet covered by a thin transparent sheet made from a cow’s horn.
A philosophy based on the belief that individuals control their own destinies through the application of their intelligence and learning.
An orientation to human behavior that emphasizes personal freedom, choice, awareness, and personal responsibility.
A teacher who combines part-time classroom teaching with leadership roles in a school or district.
The practice of integrating all students with disabilities into general education classes.
Indian Education Act of 1972 and 1974 Amendments
A federal law and subsequent amendment designed to provide direct educational assistance to Native American tribes and nations.
Cultures that tend to emphasize the individual, his or her success and achievement, and a sense of “I” in contrast to collectivistic cultures that emphasize group membership and a sense of “we”.
Individualized education program (IEP)
A plan for meeting an exceptional learner’s educational needs, specifying goals, objectives, services, and procedures for evaluating progress.
The prejudicial belief that one’s ethnic or racial group is superior to others.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
A 1990 federal act providing a free, appropriate education to disabled youth between 3 and 21 years of age. IDEA superseded the earlier Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142)
Programs of support for beginning teachers, usually during their first year of teaching.
A branch of cognitive science concerned with how individuals use long- and short-term memory to acquire information and solve problems….
An approach to teaching that gives students opportunities to explore or inquire into subjects so that they develop their own answers to problem situations.
On-site professional development programs in which teachers meet to learn new techniques, develop curricular materials, share ideas, or solve problems.
Institutional policies and practices, intentional or not, that result in racial inequities.
A school curriculum that draws from two or more subject areas and focuses on a theme or concept rather than on a single subject.
The ability to learn; the cognitive capacity for thinking.
International Assessment of Educational Progress (IAEP)
A program established in 1991 for comparing the achievement of students in the United States with that of students from other countries.
Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC)
A consortium of states that has developed performance-based standards for what beginning teachers should know and be able to do and “professional practice” standards that apply throughout the developmental stages of a teacher’s career.
Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA)
Comprehensive school-reform legislation requiring all Kentucky schools to form school-based management councils with authority to set policies in eight areas.
A school for children before they begin formal schooling at the elementary level; based on the ideas of German educator Friedrick Froebel, kindergarten means “garden where children grow”.
A U.S. government program during World War II that provided funding for training workers in war plants, construction of schools, and child care for working parents.
Children who, because of family circumstances, must spend part of each day unsupervised by a parent or guardian.
Latin grammar school
Colonial schools established to provide male students with a precollege education; comparable to today’s high schools.
Learning disability (LD)
A limitation in one’s ability to take in, organize, remember, and express information.
Digital resources containing a small amount of information that can be reused to support learning-for example, learning objects stored at the National Science digital Library or at PBS Teachers.
Cognitive, affective, and physiological behaviors through which an individual learns most effectively; determined by a combination of hereditary and environmental influences.
Least restrictive environment
An educational program that meets a disabled student’s special needs in a manner that is identical, insofar as possible, to that provided to students in general education classrooms.
A three-part test, based on Lemon v. Kurtzman, to determine whether a state has violated the separation of church and state principle.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students
Students whose sexual orientation may subject them to discrimination and/or harassment in school settings.
Limited English proficiency (LEP)
A designation for students with limited ability to understand, read, or speak English and who have a first language other than English.
Local School Council (LSC)
A group of community members that is empowered to develop policies for the operation of local schools.
Local School District
An agency at the local level that has the authority to operate schools in the district.
A branch of philosophy concerned with the processes of reasoning and the identification of rules that will enable thinkers to reach valid conclusions.
A school offering a curriculum that focuses on a specific area such as the performing arts, mathematics, science, international studies, or technology. Magnet schools, which often draw students from a larger attendance area than regular schools, are frequently developed to promote voluntary desegregation.
The policy and process of integrating disabled or otherwise exceptional learners into regular classrooms with nonexceptional students.
Massachusetts Act of 1642
A law requiring each town to determine whether it’s young people could read and write.
Massachusetts Act of 1647
A law mandating the establishment and support of schools; often referred to as the Old Deluder Satan Act because education was seen as the best protection against the wiles of the devil.
An approach to instruction based on the assumptions that (1) nearly all students can learn material if given enough time and taught appropriately and (2) learning is enhanced if students can progress in small, sequenced steps.
An immensely popular series of reading books for students in grades 1 through 6, written in the 1830s by Reverend William Holmes McGuffey.
The nation’s first law to provide assistance to homeless persons, including free public education for children.
The gathering of data that indicate how much students have learned.
A wise, knowledgeable individual who provides guidance and encouragement to someone.
An intensive form of teaching in which a wise experienced teacher (the mentor) inducts a student (the Protégé ) into a professional way of life.
A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of reality.
A brief, single-concept lesson taught by a teacher education student to a small group of students; usually designed to give the education student an opportunity to practice a specific teaching skill.
Groups of people who share certain characteristics and are smaller in number than the majority of a population.
Learning that involves the use of mobile technologies such as smartphones.
The process of thinking out loud that teachers use to make students aware of the reasoning involved in learning new material.
A method of teaching, developed by Maria Montessori, based on a prescribed set of materials and physical exercises to develop children’s knowledge and skills.
The reasoning process people follow to decide what is right or wrong.
Morrill Land-Grant Act
An 1862 act that provided federal land that states could sell or rent to raise funds to establish colleges of agriculture and mechanical arts.
Elementary Classrooms with students from different grade levels.
A school curriculum that addresses the needs and backgrounds of all students regardless of their cultural identity and includes the cultural perspectives, or voices, of people who have previously been silent or marginalized.
Education that provides equal educational opportunities to all students–regardless of socioeconomic status; gender; or ethnic, racial, or cultural backgrounds–and is dedicated to reducing prejudice and celebrating the rich diversity of U.S. life.
A set of beliefs based on the importance of seeing the world from different cultural frames of reference and valuing the diversity of cultures in the global community.
A perspective on intellectual ability, proposed by Howard Gardner, suggesting that there are at least eight, and maybe as many as ten, types of human intelligence.
A popular form of online social networking that people use to communicate with a network of friends who have common interests.
National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification’s (NASDTEC) Interstate Agreement
A reciprocity agreement among approximately 47 states and the District of Columbia whereby a teaching certificate obtained in one state will be honored in another; developed by the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC).
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
A board established in 1987 that began issuing professional certificates in 1994-95 to teachers who possess extensive professional knowledge and the ability to perform at a high level.
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
An agency that accredits, on a voluntary basis, almost half of the nation’s teacher education programs.
National Defense Education Act
A 1958 federally sponsored program to promote research and innovation in science, mathematics, modern foreign languages, and guidance.
National Education Association (NEA)
The oldest and largest professional association for teachers and administrators.
National Governor’s Association (NGA)
An association of state governors that influences policies in several areas, including teacher education and school reform.
National Ntwork for Educational Renewal (NNER)
A national network of colleges and universities that collaborate with school districts and partner schools to reform education according to 19 postulates in John Goodlad’s “Teachers for Our Nation’s Schools” (1990)
A Nation at Risk
A 1983 national report critical of U.S. education.
An agreement between the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers to work collaboratively to attain mutually desired goals for the teaching profession.
Failure to exercise reasonable, prudent care in providing for the safety of others.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001
A federal law that mandates statewide testing in reading and mathematics each year in grades 3-8 and holds schools accountable for students’ performance on state proficiency tests.
Conditions characterized by the absence of discrimination; for example, employees receive compensation, privileges, and opportunities for advancement without regard for race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
Schools that focus on the preparation of teachers.
Achievement tests that compare students’ scores with scores of other students who are similar.
The intellectual processes and subject content that schools do not teach.
Field experiences wherein a teacher education student observes a specific aspect of classroom life such as the students, the teacher, the interactions between the two, the structure of the lesson, or the setting.
Education that is delivered via the Internet.
Online Social Networking
An online community of people who share common interests and us methods such as e-mail, chat rooms, blogging, voice chat, and discussion groups to communicate.
Open Source Materials
Software, learning materials, and other digital resources that are available for free on the Internet.
Schools that have large instructional areas with movable walls and furniture that can be rearranged easily.
Opportunity to Learn (OTL)
The time during which a teacher provides students with challenging content and appropriate instructional strategies to learn that content.
Out-Of-School Time (OST) Activities
Growth-oriented activities for students that take place beyond the school day; often called extra curricular activities.
A book by philosopher Mortimer Adler calling for a perennialist core curriculum based on the Great Books (1982)
Schools founded on religious beliefs.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
The knowledge accomplished teachers possess regarding how to present subject matter to students through the use of analogies, metaphors, experiments, demonstrations, illustrations, and other instructional strategies.
The practice of having students assess one another’s work; usually done informally and during a class session.
An arrangement whereby students, monitored by a school counselor or teacher, counsel one another in areas such as low achievement, interpersonal problems, substance abuse, and career planning.
Approaches to teaching, such as cooperative learning and group investigation that use the social relationships among students to promote their learning .
Experiential activities, such as role-playing and simulations. that encourage students to be more accepting of differences and to develop empathy, social skills, and awareness of prejudice.
An arrangement whereby students tutor other students in the same classroom or at the same grade level.
A philosophical orientation that emphasizes the ideas contained in the Great Books and maintains that the true purpose of education is the discovery of the universal, or perennial, truths about life.
The process of determining students’ ability to apply knowledge, skills. and work habits to the performance of specific learning tasks; determining what students can do as well as what they know.
Established levels of achievement, quality of performance or level of proficiency.
Academic standards that reflect levels of proficiency-for example, “1 = outstanding, 2 = exemplary, 3 = proficient, 4 = progressing, and 5 = standard not met”.
Phi Delta Kappa (PDK)
A professional and honorary fraternity of educators with 650 chapters and 130,000 members.
The use of logical reasoning to inquire into the basic truths about being, knowledge, and conduct.
Delivery of digital-media files over the Internet and played back on portable media players such as ipods.
The process of determining how much students have learned by examining collections of work that document their leaning over time.
A philosophical orientation that maintains there are no absolute truths; instead, there are many truths and many voices that need to be heard.
A short field-based experience during which teacher education students spend time observing assisting in classrooms.
Praxis Series: Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers
A battery of tests available to states for the initial certification of teachers. Consists of assessments in three areas: academic skills, knowledge of subject, and classroom performance.
Educational programs for children from birth to age 8, also termed early childhood education.
The stage of cognitive development (2 to 7 years of age) proposed by Jean Piaget in which the individual begins to use language and symbols to think of objects and people outside the immediate environment.
Umbrella term for reform initiatives that seek to run public schools as private enterprises.
An approach to teaching that places primary emphasis on the teacher’s role as a decision maker and problem solver.
An occupation that requires a high level of expertise, including advanced study in a specialized field, adherence to a code of ethics, and the ability to work without close supervision.
Professional Development Schools (PDSs)
Schools that have formed partnerships with a college or university for the purposed of improving the schools and contributing to the improvement of teacher preparation programs. Activities at a PDS may include collaborative research team teaching, demonstration lessons by teacher education faculty, and various professional growth opportunities for teachers and teacher educators.
Professionalization of Teaching
The steadily increasing political influence and status of teaching as a profession; increased political influence and status reflect changes such as expanding leadership opportunities for teachers, national board certification, peer review, shared decision making, and teacher-mentor programs.
A collection of various kinds of evidence (for example, projects, written work, and video demonstrations of skills) documenting the achievement and performance of individuals in an area of professional practice.
Professional Standards Boards
State agencies to regulate and improve the professional practice of teachers, administrators. and other education personnel.
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)
An international assessment of students’ reading mathematics, and science literacy skills in 34 nations.
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)
An international assessment of students’ reading and literacy skills in 44 nations.
A movement during the 1920s and 1930s to create schools that emphasized democracy, children’s interests and needs, and closer connections between school and community.
A philosophical orientation based on the belief that life is evolving in a positive direction, that people may be trusted to act in their own best interests, and that education should focus on the needs and interests of the students.
An approach to learning in which students work in teams on complex, real-world projects that allow them to develop and apply skills and knowledge.
Local taxes assessed against real estate and , in some areas, against personal property in the form of cars, household furniture and appliances, and stocks and bonds.
Values such as honesty, patriotism, fairness, and civility that promote the well-being of a society.
A life crisis at one of eight different stages of growth and development. According to psychologist Erik Erikson, individuals must resolve each crisis to reach the next stage.
The progression of an individual through various stages of psychological and social development.
Subjective assessments of student learning–for example, formal and informal observations of students’ performance on learning tasks and /or the manner in which they approach those tasks.
The appraisal of teacher performance through the use of written, open–ended descriptions of classroom events in terms of their qualities.
Assessments of student learning that yield numerical scores that teachers use to evaluate student learning as well as the effectiveness of their teaching.
The appraisal of teacher performance by recording classroom events in terms of their number or frequency — for example, teacher verbal behaviors such as questioning, praising or critiquing.
A concept of human variation used to distinguish people on the basis of biological traits and characteristics.
Race to the Top Program
A competitive program launched by the Obama administration to provide funding to states that have developed innovative reforms to increase student achievement, close achievement gaps, improve high school graduation rates, and ensure that students are prepared for success in college and careers.
Reading and Writing Schools
Colonial schools, supported by public funds and fees paid by parents, that used a religiously oriented curriculum to teach boys reading and writing skills and, to a lesser degree, mathematics.
The practice in some states of requiring experienced teachers to undergo periodic testing to maintain their teaching certificates.
The practice of redrawing district boundaries to equalize educational funding by reducing the range of variation in the ability of school districts to finance education.
The process of thinking carefully and deliberately about the outcomes of one’s teaching.
Regional Educational Service Agency (RESA)
A state educational agency that provides supportive services to two or more school districts; known in some states as education service centers, intermediate school districts, multicounty education service units, boards of cooperative educational services, or educational service regions.
The degree to which an assessment provides results that are consistent over time.
Response to Intervention (RTI) Model
To determine if a student has a learning disability, increasingly intensive instruction is provided; if the student is not “responsive” to the instruction, the student receives appropriate special education services.
Reorganizing how schools are controlled at the local level so that teachers, principals, parents, and community members have greater authority.
An approach to teaching based on the student’s current level of understanding and ability; the teacher varies the amount of help given (for example, clues, encouragement, or suggestions) to students based on their moment-to-moment understanding of the material being learned.
Teach for America
A program that enables recent college graduates without a teaching certificate to teach in districts with critical shortages of teachers and, after taking professional development courses and after supervision by state and school authorities, earn a teaching certificate.
A license to teach issued by a state or, in a few cases, a large city.
An activity in which teacher education students participate in role-plays designed to create situations comparable to those actually encountered by teachers.
An agreement between a teacher and a board of education that the teacher will provide specific services in return for a certain salary, benefits, and privileges.
An arrangement whereby a team of teachers teaches a group of students equal in number to what the teachers would have in their self-contained classrooms.
School-based Case Management
An approach to education in which professionally trained case managers work directly with teachers, the community, and families to coordinate and deliver appropriate services to at-risk students and their families.
School-based management (SBM)
Various approaches to school improvement in which teachers, principals, students, parents, and community members manage individual schools and share in the decision-making processes.
The primary governing body of a local school district.
Various proposals that would allow parents to choose the schools their children attend.
The collective way of life characteristic of a school; a set of beliefs, values, traditions, and ways of thinking and behaving that distinguish it from other schools.
School Improvement Research
Research studies that identify the characteristics of schools that improve over time.
Those elements of a school’s culture that are handed down from year to year.
An online video clearinghouse that hosts videos produced by students with the help of their teachers.
An alternative school (within a regular school) designed to meet the needs of students at risk.
The application of management principles and techniques to the operation of big business and large school districts.
Rating scales that consist of preestablished criteria for evaluating student performance on learning tasks.
Search and Seizure
The process of searching an individual.
A popular internet-based virtual reality world.
The process of measuring one’s growth in regard to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes possessed by professional teachers.
An organizational structure for schools in which one teacher instructs a group of students (typically 20 to 30) in a single classroom.
An approach to teaching in which students participate in community-based service activities and then reflect on the meaning of those experiences.
Sex Role Socialization
Socially expected behavior patterns conveyed to individuals on the basis of gender.
Unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior directed toward another person, whether of the same or opposite sex.
A philosophical orientation that emphasizes equity and equal social benefits for all individuals and groups.
A philosophical orientation based on the belief that social problems can be solved by changing, or reconstructing society.
A method of questioning designed to lead students to see errors and inconsistencies in their thinking, based on questioning strategies used by Socrates.
A teaching specialty for meeting the special educational needs of exceptional learners.
Stages of Development
Predictable stages through which individuals pass as they progress through life.
Pencil-and-paper achievement tests taken by large groups of students and scored in a uniform manner-some examples are the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, California Achievement Test, and the Scholastic Aptitude Test.
Statements that reflect what students should know and be able to do within a particular discipline or at a particular grade level.
Standards-based Education (SBE)
Basing curricula, teaching, and assessment of student learning on rigorous academic standards.
Money given by a state to its cities and towns to provide essential services, including the operation of public schools.
State Board of Education
The highest educational agency in a state, charged with regulating the state’s system of education.
State Department of Education
The branch of state government, headed by the chief state school officer, charged with implementing the state’s educational policies.
Takeover of a chronically low-achieving school or district by the state.
The process of attributing behavioral characteristics to all members of a group; formulated on the basis of limited experiences with and information about the group, coupled with an unwillingness to examine prejudices.
Curriculum that is organized around students’ needs and interests.
Differences among students in regard to gender, race, ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status.
Students at Risk
Students whose living conditions and backgrounds place them at risk for dropping out of school.
Students with Disabilities
Students who need special education services because they possess one or more of the following disabilities: learning disabilities, speech or language impairments, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance, hearing impairments, orthopedic impairments, visual impairments, or other health impairments.
Differences among students in regard to their developmental needs, interests, abilities, and disabilities.
A curriculum that emphasizes learning an academic discipline.
Instruction provided by temporary teachers who replace regular teachers absent due to illness, family responsibilities, personal reasons, or attendance at professional workshops and conferences.
An assessment of student learning made for the purpose of assigning grades at the end of a unit, semester, or year and deciding whether students are ready to proceed to the next phase of their education.
The chief administrator of a school district.
Centers where teachers provide other teachers with instructional materials and new methods, and where teachers can exchange ideas.
Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC)
An agency founded in 1997 that accredits teacher education programs that provide evidence of having met TEAC’s three Quality Principles.
A teacher who assumes a key leadership role in the improvent and/or day-to-day operation of a school.
A teacher-leader who influences educational policies in entrepreneurial ways.
A teacher who regularly conducts classroom research to improve his or her teaching
Teachers’ Craft Knowledge
The knowledge teachers develop about teaching that derives from their experiences in the classroom, particularly the actions they have taken to solve specific problems of practice.
Teachers’ Thought Processes
The thoughts that guide teachers’ actions in classrooms. These thoughts typically consist of thoughts related to planning, theories and beliefs, and interactive thoughts and decisions.
Teacher Supply and Demand
The number of school-age students compared to the number of available teachers; may also be projected on the basis of estimated numbers of students and teacher.
An online video clearinghouse where teachers and students can watch, upload, and share videos.
An employment policy in which teachers, after serving a probationary period, retain their positions indefinitely and can be dismissed only on legally defensible grounds.
Text-to-speech (TTS) Program
A computer software program that converts speech into text.
3D Virtual Reality Worlds
Computer-based simulated environments that a user inhabits through use of an avatar, a user’s representation of himself or herself; a popular 3D virtual reality program is Second Life.
Time On Task
The amount of time students are actively and directly engaged in learning tasks.
A provision of the 1972 Education amendments Act prohibiting sex discrimination in educational programs.
Conditions that would permit the filing of legal charges against a professional for breach of duty and/or behaving in a negligent manner.
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)
An international assessment of mathematics and science achievement among fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade students in 41 nations.
A popular form of online social networking that allows users to communicate via “tweets”; short bursts of information up to 140 characters in length.
The degree to which assessments measure what they are supposed to measure.
An effort to provide equal educational opportunity within a state by providing different levels of funding based on economic needs within school districts.
Computerized online simulations of scientific laboratories that enable students to conduct scientific inquiry in a virtual environment.
Educational institutions that offer K-12 courses through the internet or by means of web-based methods, and online learning space where teachers and students interact.
Funds allocated to parents that they may use to purchase education for their children from public or private schools in the area.
Online inquiry research projects for students that require them to gather material from the web.
A website created, edited, and maintained by a group of people with a common interest.
Within-class Ability Grouping
The practice of creating small, homogeneous groups of students within a single classroom for the purpose of instruction, usually in reading or mathematics, at the elementary level.
Women’s Educational Equity Act (WEEA)
A 1974 federal law that guarantees equal educational opportunity for females.
Dispositions important for effective thinking and learning -for example, reading with curiosity and willingness to work hard.
An online video clearinghouse where people watch, upload, and share videos.
Zero Tolerance Policies
School policies related to discipline and safety that provide for automatic, sever consequences for certain types of misbehavior -misbehavior that involves drugs, violence, sexual harassment, or bullying, for example.