Background to the French new wave cinema
Background to the French new wave cinema

Background to the French new wave cinema

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  • Published: October 16, 2017
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The New Wave ( Gallic: LA Nouvelle Vague was a term coined by critics for a group of Gallic Film makers that existed in the late fiftiess and 1960s. these set of film makers were really influenced by Italian Neorealism. ( New organize pragmatism ) . Although. this group of people was non good organized film makers. they were nevertheless connected through their ego witting rejection of classical cinematic signifier and their spirit of vernal iconoclasm. Many of them ne'er had the societal and political turbulences of that period separated from their work.

Their experience which came up in a extremist motion experimented with editing/visual manner. and narrative portion as a manner of interrupting from the old tradition of preservation. So many film makers were really involved in this motion ; nevertheless. the most outstanding innovators among them include Jean – Luc Goddard. Fancois Truffaut. Eric Rohmer. Claude Charbroil. and Jacques Rivelte among others. Through unfavorable judgment and editorialization. they laid the basis for a rush of constructs which was subsequently termed as the auteur theory. the Gallic version of which is “La Politique diethylstilbestrols auteurs” significance ( “the policy of authors” ) .

This policy holds that the manager is the writer of his films. with a personal signature which must be seen from movie to movie. The beginning of New Wave was an exercising by the cahiers authors in using his doctrine to the universe by directing films themselves. Chabrol’s Le Beau Serge ( 1958 ) is seen as the first New Wave characteristic. Truffaut achieve

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d great success in the 400 Blows ( 1959 ) and Godard. with Breathless in 1960. The motion flourished vastly due to the success it recorded in the country of unfavorable judgment and funding.

This turned the world’s attending to the invention of the New Wave and enabled the motion to boom the more. New Wave Cinema is a common term in Film surveies as a manner of conveying together series of movies and forces that represent a alteration of way or a interruption with the yesteryear. It is of import to observe that New Wave is an epoch normally referred to as a historical minute within a National Cinema. The most popular illustration of the Gallic New Wave ( Nouvelle Vague ) ; basically a group of immature critics who broke off from the earlier or olden tradition and resorted to bring forthing movies that are extremely exciting. experimental and innovating.

The inquiry so. is what the nature of Gallic Cinema before this invention was. The Gallic were the innovators of early Cinema through the soundless movies of Auguste and Louis Lumiere and Georges Melies. These film makers represent the polar antonyms of filming ; a realistic docudrama attack for the Lumiere brothers. During the late thirties. France experience a period of increased political consciousness that encouraged the development of poetic pragmatism ( i. e. realisme poetique ) which characterized Gallic Cinema during this period.

The intended consequence of poetic pragmatism was to project an ambivalent image. a romanticized vision of the universe. every bit good as an ambiance of fatalism reflecting the spirit of clip. Galli

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Cinema was earnestly affected by the Second World War during the Nazy German business which besides dominated the universe of movie devising. Even though the Cinema industry was ruined. the Gallic people needed amusement and as the consequence and in the early 1950ss. Gallic production started booming once more.

The movies were marked by typical characteristics that were considered really choice oriented. ( LA tradition de qualite ) . At the beginning of the New Wave was a Cinema diary called Cahiers du Cinema and the development of a critical impression La Politique des auteurs. which both grew progressively influential in the 1950s as a reaction to the mainstream quality tradition on the one manus. and to enthusiastic cinephilic involvement in a few typical managers working in Hollywood on the other.

Even though it has been for good established today. the Gallic New Wave was non originally conceived as a Cinema motion or a school. but instead was the consequence of specific socio-cultural fortunes. A figure of of import proficient developments for illustration. ( New lighter cameras ; faster. more light sensitive movie ; synchronal sound equipment and the coming of telecasting ) took topographic point in the 2nd half of the 1950s which coincided with the outgrowth of a new coevals of critics. histrions and managers.

The group of new immature managers who were included under the umbrella phrase of the New Wave ( Jean – Luc Godard. Eric Rohmer. Alain Resnais. Claude Charbol and Francois Truffant ) brought in new thoughts. the enthusiasm of young person and a sense of freedom into Gallic Cinema. Goddard was the rational of the group interested in formal experiment. and subsequently became politically involved ; Truffaut’s movie combined humanitarianism. emotion and sensitiveness ; New Wave managers work together. exchange thoughts. screenplays. technicians and even histrions.

This coaction surely helps explicate some common features in the movies that were. and still are. associated with the New Wave. These and many more are the Southern Cross of the New Wave. A FOCUS ON FRANCOIUS TRUFFAUT Francois Truffaut was born in Paris on the 6th February. 1932. He attended Lycee Rollin. Paris. He was subsequently enlisted into the ground forces. but subsequently escaped on the Eve of going for Indochina. He was subsequently released for character instability. Francois was married to Madeleine Morgenstern and got divorced around 1957 ; he really had two girls from her.

He was the laminitis of Cine – nine in Paris ; he was jailed at a point due to his inability to pay his debt and was subsequently released. He was briefly employed by the service of Cinematographique of the Ministry of Agriculture in 1953. He became a author on movie for Cahiers du Cinema. humanistic disciplines from 1953. including seminal article. “Une certain Tendance du Cinema Francois” in 1954 ; he directed his first – characteristic. Les Quatre Cents Coups. and wrote book for Godard’s “A bout de souffle.

He had won so many awards ; these include Best Director. Cannes Festival. for Les Quatres Cents Coup. 1959 ; Prix Louis Delhic. and Best Director. New York Film Criticism and British Academy Award for

Best Direction. for Day for Night. 1973. He died of malignant neoplastic disease in Paris on the 21st October. 1984. However. before his decease. he achieved great tantrum in the universe of Cinema in France. He was one of the five immature Gallic movie critics. composing for Andre Bazin’s Cahiers du Cinema in the early 1950s.

He was the 1 that foremost formulated the politique des auteurs. a position of movie history and movie art that defended those managers who were “true work forces of the Cinema. These include Renoir. Vigo. and Tati in France ; Hawks. Ford. and Welles in America – instead than those more literary. book – oriented movie managers and authors associated with the Gallic “tradition of quality” . In his first characteristic in 1959 of Les Quatre Cent Coups. he put his thoughts of Cinema spontaneousness into pattern with the survey of an stripling. Antoine Doinel. who breaks free from the bottlenecks of Gallic society to confront an unsure but unfastened hereafter.

Since this introduction. Truffaut’s calling has been dominated by an geographic expedition of the Doinel character’s hereafter. In Truffaut’s 25 old ages of doing movies. the manager. the Doinel character. and Leaud all grew up together. THE FILM. LES QUATRE CENTS COUPS ( THE FOUR HUNDRED BLOWS ) BY FRANCOIS TRUFFAUT The rebellious adolescent of Less quatre cent putschs becomes a tentative. shy. sexually gawky suer in “Antoine et Colette” episode of Love Love at Twenty. In Baisers Voles. Antoine is older but non much wiser at either love or money devising.

In Domicile conjugal. Antoine has married but is still on the tally toward something else – the alien enticement of other sexual escapades. And in L’ Amour en fuite. Antoine is still running sequence that concludes Les Quatre Cent Coups. Although Antoine is divorced. the novel which he has eventually completed has made his literary repute. That novel. it turns out. is his life itself. the full Doinel Saga as filmed by Truffaut. and Truffaut intentionally collapses the differentiation between written fiction and filmed fiction. between the existent life of worlds and the fictional life of characters.

The prostration seems warranted by the personal and professional connexions between Truffaut the manager. Doinel the character. and Leaud the histrion. Truffaut in his movie devising remained systematically committed to his extremely formal subjects of art and life as can be seen in the “Four Hundred Blows” . He besides concentrated on movie and fiction and young person instruction. instead than embarking into extremist political relations as was the instance with Jean – Luc Godard. While saying his place in Le Dermer Metro. one of his most political movie. which examines a theatre company in Nazified Paris.

The movie manager appeared to squeal that. like those histrions in that period. he could merely go on to do art the manner he knew how. that his committedness to formal artistic excellence would finally function the political intents that powerful art ever serves. and that for him to bewray his ain artistic powers for political. lead to his doing bad art. and load political statements. In this rededication to artistic signifier.

Truffaut was likely repeating his affinity with Jean Renoir. He wrote about for Cahiers du Cinema.

Renoir like Truffaut. progressed from doing more rebellious black-and-white movies in his young person to more accepting coloring material movies in his grownup age ; he played major functions in most of his ain movies as was the instance with Renoir. FRANCOIS TRUFFAUT AND FILM THEORY THE AUTEUR THEORY Harmonizing to Wikipedia. the free Encyclopedia. in movie unfavorable judgment. the auteur theory of 1950s holds that a director’s movies reflect his personal originative vision. as if they were the primary “auteur” ( the Gallic word for “auteur” ) . In some instances. movie manufacturers are considered to hold a similar “auteur” function for the movies that they have produced.

In jurisprudence the auteur is the Godhead of a movie as a work of art and is the original right of first publication holder. Under the European Union jurisprudence. the movie manager shall ever be considered the writer or one of the writers of a movie. Auteur theory by Francois Truffaut has had a major impact on movie unfavorable judgment of all time since it was advocated in 1954 by the same Francois. “Auteurism” is the method of analysing movies based on this theory. or. instead. the features of a director’s work that makes her or him an auteur.

Either the auteur theory or. instead. the features of a director’s work that makes him an auteur ( writer ) Both the auteur theory and the Auteurism method of movie analysis are closely tied to the Gallic New Wave and the movie critics who wrote for the influential Gallic movie reexamine periodical “Cahiers du Cinema. ” Auteur theory draws on the work of Andre’ Bazin. co-founder of the Cahiers du Cinema. who argued that movies should reflect a director’s personal vision.

Bazin championed movie shapers such as Howard Hawks. Alfred Hitchcock and Jean Renoir. Although Bazin provided a forum for Auteurism to boom. he remained wary of its surpluss. Another individual who this theory can be traced to is Alexandre Astrucx. who impression of the camera – stylo or “Camera pen” and the thought that managers should exert their cameras like composing use their pens and that they should non be prevented by any signifier of traditional storytelling. Traffaut and the other members of the Cahiers recognized that movie making was an industrial procedure.

To this terminal. they proposed an ideal to endeavor for ; therefore. the manager should utilize the commercial setup the manner a author uses pen and. through the mise en scene. form their vision on the work. What this means is that the function of screen author was minimized in their eyes. They besides understood and realized that non many managers could make this ideal ; they nevertheless value those that attempt to pull near to the ideal. In his farther account on his theory. Truffant asserts that there are no good or bad movies or films. instead merely good or bad managers exist.

Constantly. he tends to state that a manager makes the movie and non the narrative line or the book per – say. This is

the more ground why the manager of a movie should be the author of the book. Much of Truffaunt’s authorship of this period and his co-workers at the movie unfavorable judgment magazine cahiers du Cinema. was specially designed to roast or knock post-war Gallic Cinema. particularly the large production movies of the Cinema de qualite ( “Quality films” ) Truffaunt in his theory referred to these movies with contempt or sterile. old manner or archaic.

The theory basically maintains that all good managers and many bad 1s have such a typical manner or consistent subject that their influence is unmistakable in the organic structure of their work. Traffaunt was every bit appreciative of both managers with a pronounced ocular manner such as Alfred Hitchcock. and those whose ocular manner was less marked but who had however consistent in their subject. throughout their films such as Jean Renoir’s humanitarianism. The auteur theory has created a batch of impact on managers of the New Wave Movement of French Cinema in the sixtiess ; many of such were the critics of the Cahiers du Cinema.

One of the sarcasms of the auteur theory is that when Truffant was composing. the break-up of the Hollywood Studio System during the 1950s was showing in a period of uncertainness and preservation in American Cinema. with the consequence that really few movies of Truffant esteem were really being made. The impact of the theory did non merely halt in France. It was adopted in English – Language movie unfavorable judgment in the sixtiess. In the UK. film adopted Auteurism. while in the US ; Andrew Sarris introduced it in the essay. “Notes on the Auteur Theory in 1962.

” This essay is where the Half-French. Half-English term. “auteur theory” . originated. To be classified as an “auteur” ; harmonizing to Sarris. a manager must carry through proficient competency in their technique. personal manner in footings of how the film looks and feels the interior significance. Later in the decennary. Sarris published American Cinema ; Directors and Directions. 1929-1968. which without hold turned out to be the unofficial Bible of Auteurism. A FOCUS ON A BOUT DE SOUFFLE BY JEAN – PAAL BELMONDO ; AN ANALYSIS WITH PARTICULAR FOCUS ON VISUAL ELEMENTS USED IN THE MAKING OF THE FILM

In our analysis. we shall see how Godard created the New Wave manner by utilizing production techniques to accomplish some ocular show. These techniques include location hiting. handheld camera. natural lighting. insouciant playing and corruption of regulations of classical redaction. All these techniques can non be found in tradition of quality. turn the movie into self-generated and jury-rigged public presentations. instead than being the mere representation of the book. which exists before the movie – doing procedure Begins. About de Souffle begins with Michael Pioccard ( Jean – Paul Belmondo ) stealing a auto to drive him to Paris.

However. two Policemans on bikes chase him. He turns off the route. but is followed by one of the Policemen. Michael shoots the Policeman and runs off. What makes this portion of the movie unusual and advanced is the manner it is filmed. There is

hence every demand to analyse the movie based on the shootings ; it is merely with that that a graphic apprehension of the ocular elements can be clearly understood. The first 17 shootings last merely 44 seconds. which makes an mean a alteration of shooting every 2. 6 seconds. ( The first shooting lasts 14 seconds ) . All the advanced production techniques mentioned above are evident in this series of shootings.

The scene is shot on location. on the main road. The remainder of the scene is besides shot on location patricianly on the street of Paris. The camera is really nomadic and rickety. The pans in changeable 3 and 4 are really speedy. making bleary images. The Lighting is natural in shooting 7. the Sun shines straight into the lens. making a bloomer. Belmondo is renowned and frequently initiated for his insouciant playing manner in this movie. He seems to improvize most of the clip. Finally. this series of shootings subvert the regulations of continuity redaction. The cut from changeable 3 to hit 4 is less than 30 grades and. hence creates a Jump cut.

In changeable fire. Michael’s auto is going from screen left to test right. But in changeable 6. the Police are shown going in different or opposite way. from screen right to go forth. The Cameraman has crossed the route after shooting the auto to movie the bikes. Such a fleet alteration of way creates a confusion of screen infinite. Almost in the same vena. when Michael stops the auto. he looks screen left at the Police passing by. But after he picked up the gun. he looks screen right at the Policeman. alternatively of screen left. as the viewing audiences screen left. as the viewing audiences would anticipate.

The cut from 15 to 16. the shooting of Michael’s manus to the shooting of the gun. created another leap. because there is really small difference between the two shootings. The usage of rickety. handheld camera. together with the usage of location shot and natural lighting. leap cuts and discontinuous redaction. make non take to demo the action clearly ; alternatively. it offers a fragmental and partial vision of the scene. These “imperfect” techniques represent the auteur’s presence and service as a clear grade of the manner he or she writes his or single vision into the movie.

The consequence these production techniques create is one of spontaneousness and improvisation. However. what is interesting is the usage of these techniques to give the movie a documental feel. The bleary pans. the rickety camera motions and disconnected redacting testify to the trouble the camera adult male faces in the state of affairs which he found himself and his physical interaction with the event. It is imperative to observe that the stylistic picks made by Gallic New Wave managers were non merely determined by aesthetic considerations. but besides y economic sciences. The Gallic New Wave is a low budget movie doing pattern.

Filming on location with natural lighting lessenings production costs. merely as the accent on spontaneousness defrays pre-production cost such as book authorship. Nevertheless. far from being deponent by the deficiency

of finance. the Gallic Wave managers identified low production costs with artistic freedom. They saw that a close relationship exist between the size of the budget and artistic freedom for ocular creative activity and consequence. Hence. they believed that the higher the budget. the lower the artistic freedom as one may non be allowed to improvize since every trifle would be in topographic point.

This is non the instance in the Hollywood Film doing. The direct antonym is the instance here. To this terminal. a crisp contrast is noticeable while comparing the Hollywood Wave Film doing with the Gallic New Wave. FRENCH NEW WAVE CINEMA AND HOLLYWOOD FILM Devising: JUXTAPOSITION Contrary to what we saw in the Gallic New Wave Cinema. the Hollywood movie devising has taken a different dimension. Many of the initial conventions of the Gallic Wave are get downing to travel into extinction today. Jump cuts were used so much to cover errors as they were an artistic convention.

Jean – Luc Godard surely appreciated the luxating experience a leap cut conveyed. The usage of location shot. natural lighting and improvisational playing by Midvale Claude Chabrol and Francois Truffaut every bit good as Jean – Luc Godard has been visited with an invention with the outgrowth of Hollywood and its laterality in the movie devising in the universe ; as accurate and appropriate steps are frequently taken to control any attitude of copying the uncomplete and speedy production of the Gallic Wave Cinema.

It is against this background that it has become necessary to state that since the coming of commercial Cinema of a century ago. the costs and complexness of movie doing have encouraged manufacturers to develop a factory-oriented attack to production. This is the instance of the Hollywood movie devising. The benefit of such attack includes the centralisation of both production and direction ; the division and elaborate subdivision of labour. This is non the instance with the Gallic New Wave Cinema as they upheld the manager as the lone competent creative person without any signifier of division of labour.

Contrary to the Gallic New Wave Cinema. where standardised production is frequently questionable. Hollywood movie production frequently yearns for criterion. This. they do through seting all they can to guarantee that the production is of criterion. This austere from movie manner. merchandise type. cost efficiencies derived from economic systems of graduated table. consistent production values ; and the cultivation of a trade name name in the film market topographic point. This was non the instance in the Gallic New Wave Cinema. Their major mark was artistic freedom which should non be restricted by high budget.

But in the instance of Hollywood. artistic freedom is non emphasized. what is emphasized is the quality of the movie to be produced which is frequently encouraged or motivated through immense budgeting and division of labor. The thought of proper movie devising set into Hollywood in 1910 in California ; when the venue became the Centre of commercial movie production in the United States. The dominant houses referred to their installations as “studios” . which invoke the more artistic facets of movie devising. although operations

on the sort of theoretical account that Henry Ford ( 1963-1947 ) was presenting to the car industry at the clip.

In the larger planetary context. Hollywood has been the dominant force throughout gesture future history due to the studio’s corporate control of distribution every bit good as production. This control diminished well in station war epoch. This was due to the rise in independent production and free-lance endowment every bit good as the menace of telecasting and other new media. Yet. the Hollywood studios are the strongest defining forces in film industry. and their operation today is the cardinal extension of the system that they established at their origin.

It is against this background that it has become obvious that the current tendency in the Hollywood movie devising is better off than the Gallic New Wave Cinema and that is why some of the Gallic New Wave Directors realized themselves that the Hollywood Cinema is something to compose place approximately. To buttress our point and to clearly endorse up this apposition without any signifier of bias. a casual scrutiny of some outstanding Hollywood movie shapers such as John Ford. Alfred Hitchcock and Nicholas Ray would be taken into consideration.

JOHN FORD AND THE HOLLYWOOD FILM MAKING There is cipher after holding gone through his profile would doubt his illustriousness in the American film devising. Even among great movie shapers. the illustriousness of John Ford is frequently observed. This is why Welles much quoted Matra was “John Ford. John Ford and John Ford” . The route to Citizen Kane and Xanadu. A John Ford movie was a ocular satisfaction ; this was non the instance during the Gallic New Wave Cinema. His method of hiting was characterized with lucidity and evident simpleness.

Frank Capra called Ford “pure great” and Elian Kazan confessed that. even after half-a-dozen movies. he studied Ford’s work to larn how to go more cinematic. She says ‘Ford taught me to state it in images. . . Jack taught me to swear long shootings. This is a clear indicant that Ford as a film maker of the Hollywood believed and upheld the issue of trifle and ocular elements in the devising of his movies. This is contrary to what was in trend during the New Wave of French Cinema.

Ford’s illustriousness in the Hollywood movie doing manifests once more when Fredrick Fellini says “When I think of Ford. I sense the odor of barracks of Equus caballuss. of gunpowder. . . The amending trips of his heroes. But. above all. I feel a adult male who liked gesture image. who lived for the Cinema. who has made out of gesture pictures a reasonably narrative to be told to everyone. but in the first topographic point a reasonably narrative to be lived himself. . . For all this. I esteem him. I admire him and I love him. ” Ford made more than 60 soundless movies. about 130 films in all.

John Ford has to a great extent contributed vastly to the development of movie in the universe. Nicholas Ray was born on August 7th 1911 and died June 16 1979. Coming from a

wireless background. Ray directed his first and lone Broadway production. the Duke Ellington Musical Beggar’s Holiday. in 1946. After a twelvemonth he went into directing movies. and he directed his first movie. The Live by Night. This movie though was visited with a batch of unfavorable judgment. for its extreme empathy. The New York Times gave the movie a positive reappraisal and acclaimed Ray for “good. realistic production and crisp way.

Ray has an oculus for action inside informations. His theatrical production of the robbery of a bank. all seen by the chap in the pick-up auto. makes a all right cartridge holder of fomenting movie. One of his outstanding movies ‘Rebel Without a Cause” distilled much of the kernel of Rays Cinematic vision ; expressionistic usage of coloring material. dramatic usage of architecture and empathy for those who struggle to suit in to mainstream society. Ray had been praised by most Gallic New Wave Cinema. such as Jean – Luc Godard who referred to him as the Cinema. Therefore he says “The Cinema is Nicholas Ray” . This at attests to the fact that Ray has contributed greatly to the field of Cinema.

Having studied and researched in Hollywood Studio managers as can be seen above. it is of import to juxtapose the Gallic New Wave Cinema with their plants in the field of movie devising. The manner the movies of the Gallic New Wave were made reflected and involvement in oppugning Cinema itself. by pulling attending to the conventions used in movie devising. In this mode. the Gallic New Wave managers strove to show an option to Hollywood by consciously interrupting its conventions. while at the same clip paying court to what they regarded every bit good in Hollywood Cinema.

Gallic New Wave movies had a free redaction manner and did non conform to the redacting regulations of Hollywood movies. The redacting frequently drew attending to itself by being discontinuous. reminding the audience that they were watching a movie for illustration by utilizing leap cuts or the interpolation of stuff immaterial to the narrative ( non-dugetic stuff ) . Godard in peculiar. favored the usage of the leap cut. where two shootings of the same topic are cut together with a noticeable leap on the screen. In a Hollywood movie. this would be avoided by either utilizing a sot/reverse shooting edit or cutting to a shooting from a camera in a place over 300 from the predating shooting.

In Godard’s foremost full length movie A Bout de Souffle. leap cuts were used during a drawn-out conversation. Irrelevant shootings were sometimes inserted for ironic or amusing consequence. The playing in the Gallic New Wave Cinema was a pronounced going from much that had gone earlier. They were encouraged to improvize their lines. or speak over each others lines every bit would go on in existent life. In A Bout de Souffle. this leads to lengthy scenes of inconsequential duologue. in resistance to the staged addresss of much traditional movie moving as the instance of Hollywood.

Womans were frequently given strong parts that did non conform to the archetypical functions seen in most Hollywood Cinema.

for illustration Jeanne Moreau in Truffaut’s Jules ET Jim ( 1962 ) To this terminal. the ground why the Gallic New Wave film makers praised a manner so really different from their ain has been evidently established and in this respect. one now understands that the excellent and perfect production of the Hollywood Cinema can non in anyhow be overemphasized.

Bibliography

1 ) hypertext transfer protocol: /en. wikipedia. org/cinematic New Wave 2 ) Gerald Mast hypertext transfer protocol: //www/filmreference. com/Directors-st-ve/Truffaut-Franois. hypertext markup language