BACB content area 9

Term Definition
Shaping The process of differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior
Differential reinforcement procedure where reinforcement is provided for some responses and withheld for others
Differentiation occurs when differential reinforcement is used to reinforce one response and not reinforce another response. Shaping leads to this.
Discrimination occurs when differential reinforcement is used to reinforce one response in the presence of a certain stimulus and NOT reinforce the same response when that stimulus is not present
successive approximations during shaping the gradually changing criterion leads to this where a response gets closer and closer in form to a terminal behavior
what are advantages of shaping? teaches new behaviors, can be combined with other approaches to teach new behaviors
what are limitations of shaping? can be time consuming, progress toward terminal behavior is not always linear, requires consistent monitoring in order to detect that next approximation is closer to terminal behavior, can be misapplied, harmful behavior can be shaped
How can shaping be enhanced? by using discriminative stimuli, using physical guidance to help the shaping process
Behavior chain a specific sequence of discrete responses each associated with a particular stimulus condition that produce a terminal outcome; each stimulus serves 2 functions- sr for response that produced it and SD for next response in chain
behavior chain with a limited hold a sequence of behaviors that must be performed correctly and within a specified time to produce reinforcement
chaining various methods for linking specific sequences of stimuli and responses to form new performances
why use chaining? a way to teach daily living skills; can be used to add behaviors to an existing behavioral repertoire; can be combined with other behavior change procedures to build more complex and adaptive repertoires
Task analysis involves breaking a complex skill into small teachable units
how can a task analysis be constructed? by watching others complete the task, consulting experts, self-performing the sequence
why assess mastery level of a task analysis? to determine which steps of the sequence can be performed independently
Forward chaining behaviors identified in the task analysis are taught in their natural sequence with the first step being taught first. reinforcement is delivered for completion of all steps trained thus far
total task chaining learner receives training on each step in the task analysis during every session. assistance is provided if learner cannot complete one step. chain is trained until learner completes all steps to criterion.
backward chaining all the steps identified are completed by the trainer except for last step. learner is taught steps backward in order to come into contact with reinforcement immediately.
backward chaining with leap-aheads follows same procedure as back chaining except that not every step is trained. this allows trainer to probe untrained steps and speed up training of behavior chain
behavior chain interruption strategy intervention that relies on participant's skill in performing critical elements of a chain independently but chain is interrupted at a predetermined step so that another behavior can be emitted
what factors affect performance of a behavior chain? a. completeness of task analysis; b. length/complexity of chain; c. schedule of reinforcement; d. stimulus variation; e. response variation
extinction occurs when reinforcement is discontinued for a previously reinforced behavior; the future frequency of that behavior decreases
extinction of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement reinforcer is withheld upon occurrence of target behavior
escape extinction when behavior that has been maintained by negative reinforcement occurs the aversive stimulus is NOT removed
sensory extinction behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are placed on extinction by removing or masking the sensory consequence
extinction burst general effect of extinction procedure where there is an immediate increase in the frequency or magnitude of a response following extinction
spontaneous recovery reappearance of a behavior after it has diminished to its prereinforcement level during extinction. this occurs even though the behavior does not produce reinforcement
resistance to extinction continued responding during extinction measured by rate of decline in response frequency or total number of responses emitted before responding attains some final low level or ceases
what are some variables that affect resistance to extinction? intermittent schedules of reinforcement are more resistant to extinction especially if they are thinner; strength of an EO during extinction; number, magnitude, and quality of reinforcement; number of previous extinction trials; response effort
differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior reinforces a behavior that cannot occur simultaneously with the problem behavior and withholds reinforcement for problem behavior
differential reinforcement of alternative behavior reinforces occurrences of a behavior that provides a desirable alternative to the problem behavior but is not necessarily incompatible with it. must serve same function as problem behavior
what are some guidelines for selecting an incompatible/alternative behavior? select replacement behaviors that are in learner's repertoire, require equal or less effort than problem behavior, is being emitted at a rate that will provide opportunities for reinforcement, and are likely to be reinforced in the natural environment
What are some other guidelines for using DRI/DRA effectively? select reinforcers that are powerful and can be delivered consistently; reinforce replacement behavior immediately and consistently; withhold reinforcement for problem behavior; combine with other procedures
differential reinforcement of Other behavior delivers a reinforcer when a problem behavior has not occurred during or at specific times; nonoccurrence of behavior is reinforced
fixed interval DRO reinforcement is delivered at the end of a fixed interval so long as behavior has not occurred throughout the interval; timer is reset if behavior occurs during interval
variable interval DRO reinforcement is delivered for the absence of problem behavior during intervals of varying durations
Momentary DRO (fixed and variable) reinforcement is contingent on non-occurrence of behavior only at the end of each interval rather than throughout
Differential reinforcement of Low rates of responding (DRL) reinforcement is delivered reinforcement if behavior occurs less than or equal to the criterion; decreases rate of behavior but does not eliminate it
Full-session DRL reinforcement delivered at the end of an instructional session if during the entire session the behavior occurs equal to or below the criterion
interval DRL session is divided into a series of equal time intervals and reinforcement is delivered at end of each interval if behavior occurs at a number equal to or below criterion
spaced responding DRL reinforcement is delivered following an occurrence of a response if it is separated from last response by at least a minimum amount of time
contingency dependent antecedent event dependent on the consequences of behavior for developing evocative and abative effects
contingency independent antecedent event not dependent on the consequences of behavior for developing evocative and abative effects
using abolishing operations help decrease the effectiveness for reinforcers that maintain problem behavior; antecedent intervention
Non-contingent reinforcement antecedent intervention in which stimuli with known reinforcing properties are delivered on a fixed time or variable time schedule independent of learner's behavior; may diminish problem behaviors by way of abolishing operations
fixed time schedule interval of time for presentation of NCR remains the same
variable time schedule interval of time for presentation of NCR changes from delivery to delivery
advantages of NCR easy to apply; helps create positive learning environment; package treatment involving NCR with ext may reduce ext-induced response bursts; chance pairings with appropriate behavior could strengthen and maintain those desirable behaviors
disadvantages of NCR free access to NCR may reduce motivation to engage in adaptive behavior; chance pairings with problem behavior could maintain them; NCR escape can disrupt instructional practice
High-p request sequence teacher presents a series of high probability behaviors, when learner complies with several of these a low probability request is issued
behavioral momentum the persistence of a behavior in spite of response-reinforcer disruptors
factors that affect high-p effectiveness reinforcer quality; short periods of time between requests (10sec); variability of requests
Functional communication training establishes an appropriate communicative behavior to compete with problem behaviors evoked by an establishing operation; application of DRA
formal properties of language involve topography of verbal response; phonemes, morphemes, lexicon, syntax, grammar, semantics
functional properties of language involve the causes of the response;
verbal behavior a behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior; defined by the function of the response; involves social interaction between speakers and listeners
speaker gain access to reinforcement and control their environment through behavior of listeners
listeners mediate reinforcement for speakers
verbal operant unit of analysis of verbal behavior; it is the functional relation between a type of response and the independent variables that control nonverbal behavior, MO's, SD's, and consequences
mand verbal operant where the form of the response is under the control of MO's and specific reinforcement; requests
tact under control of a nonverbal stimulus and produces generalized reinforcement; usually naming objects, emotions, actions, etc.
echoic controlled by verbal SD that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response; can be a duplic or mimetic
point to point correspondence the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal stimulus matches the beginning, middle and end of the response
formal similarity within the same sense mode
copying a text a written verbal stimulus has point to point correspondence and formal similarity with written verbal response
intraverbal operant that occurs when a verbal sd evokes a verbal response that does not have point to point correspondence or formal similarity; answering questions
textual operant that has point to point correspondence but no formal similarity
transcription consists of writing and spelling words that are spoken; taking a dictation; has point to point correspondence but no formal similarity
audience verbal behavior needs an audience; listeners function as sd's for speakers and also as mediators of reinforcement

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