Art History, Online

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aesthetics
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the study of beauty or good taste; anything related to the study of beauty or good taste
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composition
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the way an artist organizes forms (lines, shapes, etc.) in an artwork, either by placing shapes on a flat surface or by arranging forms in space
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contour line
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a perceived line that describes three-dimensional form
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line
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in art, a technique for defining shape, also used to create a sense of depth
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oeuvre
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(pronounced \”uhvrr\”) — a work of art; the sum of the lifework of an artist, writer, or composer
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patron
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generally a wealthy person who pays an artist to create a work of art; throughout much of history artists could not have survived without \”patronage\”
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personification
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giving human characteristics to something that is not human
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perspective
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a method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface
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proportion
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the relationship of one part of a person, building, or object to another; for example the size of a statue’s head in relationship to the rest of the body
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symbol
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an object or word or gesture that represents something else
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We can agree that art is all of the following:
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visual tangible consciously manufactured
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An art historian does all of the following:
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analyze all the information he can gather draw conclusions about a work or time period develop theories about a work or time period
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Questions that an art history major would ask:
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When was the work created? How did the artist come to create the work? What is the subject? Was there a patron who commissioned the work? Who were the artist’s teachers? Who was the audience? Who did the artist influence? Was the artist’s oeuvre shaped by historical events or artistic movements? What effect, if any, did the work have on artistic, political, and social events?
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If you paid an artist to paint a picture of your dog for your living room wall, she might consider you her _____.
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Patron
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When an art historian looks at the formal elements, he is examining _____.
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the individual design elements of the work
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When we look at objects in a painting for their symbolic values, we are using which approach?
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an iconographic approach
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If an artist were trying to represent the concept of \”liberty\” through personification, the artist would paint _____.
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a robed woman with a torch
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The style of a particular work may tell us all of the following
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the period the style is from; the region; the elements of the style that belong to an individual artist; and the qualities of the work that do not fit into a particular category.
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All of the following are examples of materials
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pigments, clay, stone, marble, metals, canvas, papyrus
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All of the following are examples of tools
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flint, brushes, chisels, pens, charcoal
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amulet
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a small object worn to ward off evil, harm, or illness or to bring good fortune; protecting charm
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bitumen
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a tarlike substance
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lintels
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the horizontal beam or crosspiece over a door or window that carries the weight of the structure above it
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megalithic
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description of a structure made of large, roughly hewn stones
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monoliths
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a large single block or piece of stone
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nomadic
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a trait of people who do not live in one place but rather travel around, hunting and gathering food where they can find it
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ochre
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a hydrated (containing water) iron oxide compound
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oolitic limestone
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sedimentary rock consisting of tiny spherical concentric grains
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relief sculptures
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pictures carved in such a way that the figures stand out from the background
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shaman
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a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds, using magic to cure illness, foretell the future, control spiritual forces, and so on
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trilithons
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a three-part construction of two monoliths topped by a lintel
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twisted perspective
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each part of the body is shown so that the image most easily represents the original
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The paintings in the Lascaux cave were discovered by _____.
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four teenage boys
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The Venus of Willendorf and other similar statuettes have the following characteristics
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fertility features no specific identity exaggerated anatomy
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Paleolithic cave art predominantly features all of the following themes
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animal images, handprints, geometric figures, and dots.
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The work of the Paleolithic artists stands out today because
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the artists had an understanding of depth and movement that was not seen again until many thousands of years later
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The human figure found in Ain Ghazal is
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of indeterminate gender
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In the Neolithic period, art flourished because _____
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people were able to settle into permanent villages
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The caves at Lascaux were closed in 1963 because _____
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the collective breath of the many visitors caused the paintings to corrode
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All of the following are known to be true about Stonehenge
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it is an accurate solar calendar it was built in three phases some stones weigh as much as fifty tons
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It took approximately how many years for Stonehenge to be built?
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1,400
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Unit 1
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Paleolithic art was created between 32000 BC and 9000 BC. and can be divided into two categories: portable art and cave art. Portable art was usually small and made of limestone. Cave art covered great expanses of walls and ceilings in underground chambers. Paleolithic artists usually depicted animals or geometric designs. They rarely created likenesses of human beings with the exception of the \”Venus\” statuettes. Neolithic art (9000 to 330 BC) brought artistic expression into everyday life. From the way the villages were constructed to the way shrines were decorated, art was an important part of the Neolithic world. Statues and paintings found in excavated villages show an increased and more sophisticated depiction of human figures. In addition to these statues and paintings, megalithic structures such as Stonehenge were created by many generations of people, but the purpose of the structures and even the identity of the builders remains a mystery.
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cuneiform script
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writing typified by the use of wedge-shaped characters
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metallurgy
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the process of separating metals from their ores and preparing them for use; the technique or science of making and compounding alloys; the technique of working or heating metals to give them certain desired shapes or properties
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stele
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a large stone monument; plural is stelae
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The first major city in Sumer was
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Uruk
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Ziggurats were made of
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mud bricks
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Babylonian culture was based on
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Sumerian culture
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Mesopotamia means
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between two rivers
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Assyrian artists primarily depicted
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Hunting and battle
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The purpose of the winged bull that guarded the king’s palaces was
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To ward off evil
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cornices
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crowning projections
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dynasty
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a ruling family that covers more than one generation
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friezes
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any sculpted or painted band in a building
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gabled
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refers to having gable, a triangular section above your door or window
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Which of the following leaders founded the Persian Empire?
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Cyrus the Great
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Sculptures that decorated buildings came in two styles. ones were carvings that had more of a three-dimensional effect while sculptures were very close to the original wall
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Which city did Alexander the Great sack and burn?
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Persepolis
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The Second Persian Empire became famous for its prized
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Carpets
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Two major themes of Persian art were:
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Fighting and War
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adobe
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sun-dried brick
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axial
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north-south orientation so that building doors open east to west, corresponding to the daily passage of the sun
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codices
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plural of codex — screen-fold books of paper produced from fiber or the bark of various plants or deerskin
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corbel
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one stone is extended above another to form an archlike shape
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frescoes
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paintings made on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments
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indigenous
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the original inhabitants of an area
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pictographs
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a picture representing a word or idea
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Mesoamerican lives were regulated by all of the following
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life and death natural phenomena cycles of the sun and moon
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All of the following are chronological divisions of pre-Columbian civilizations
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the pre-Classic, or Formative, period (1500 BC to AD 300) the Classic, or Florescent, period (300 to 900) the post-Classic period (900 to 1540)
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Early Mesoamerican cultures were based around:
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agriculture
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The oldest known pre-Columbian civilization was the:
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Olmecs
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What natural resources are available in the Andes mountains
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gold platinum silver copper mercury lead iron
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The earliest civilization known to exist in the Andes region was the:
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Chavin
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The ____________ were partially known for their massive pyramids, human sacrifices, and ornate body ornaments
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Moche
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Explain briefly how the Nazca decorated their pots compared to how the Moche did it.
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The Nazca painted images directly onto their clay pots while the Moche created figures from the clay.
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Sometimes referred to as the \”Napoleon of the Andes\” for his great expansion of the early Inca Empire.
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Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
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The Incas were credited with creating:
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rope suspension bridges irrigation canals aqueducts large temples, palaces, fortresses, and public works
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The Incas were known for all of the following
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textiles colored with natural dyes painted images on clay pots small figurines made of metal
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Andean
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The ancient Andean civilizations can be divided into three categories: the pre-Classical, the Classical, and the post-Classical. The ChavĂ­n people created stone temples and beautiful pottery. The Moche built adobe pyramids. Their artwork was designed to appease the gods. The Incas were one of the great civilizations of all time. They built cities of precisely cut stone and left artifacts of pottery, metalwork and fabric. Much of Inca artwork was motivated by their religion. Machu Picchu, a sacred city high in the mountains, contains ruins that help us understand the Inca civilization. Vestiges of their culture survive today in their Peruvian descendents.
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aromatic
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good-smelling
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dynasties
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families that maintained political power for more than one generation
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hieroglyphics
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picture words
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ka
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spirit or soul
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mastabas
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large, flat pieces made of mud-brick
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mummification
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a technique for preserving bodies
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sarcophagus
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an outer coffin made of stone; for royalty it might be made of gold or silver
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ushabti
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small figures representing servants
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What were the three purposes of the temples and tombs of ancient Egypt?
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to ensure the continued success of a great people to enable souls to live on into eternity to honor the gods
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Steps of mummification
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First, the body was embalmed The brains were then extracted through the nostrils piece by piece, and the nostrils were sealed with wax The body was filled with natron, a natural salt, which helped it dry. After seventy days, the body cavity was filled with various materials Then they covered the body in aromatic oils ready to be wrapped in strips of linen the body was deposited into a coffin that was sometimes \”nested\” inside one or more other coffins
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Ruins of what kinds of facilities for the pyramid workers have been found?
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bakeries, breweries, granaries, houses, cemeteries, and probably even medical facilities
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The architect, Senemut, built a great mortuary for which Egyptian leader?
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Queen Hatshepsu
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Which of the following individuals was not a leader of ancient Egypt?
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Imhotep
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deities
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gods
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Egyptologists
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scientists who study the history of ancient Egypt
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frontality
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facing forward
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macehead
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polished spherical or solid oval stone with a cylindrical hollow right through for mounting the stone on a stick or shaft palettes: decorated flat pieces of stone or metal with a surface for cosmetics
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palettes
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decorated flat pieces of stone or metal with a surface for cosmetics
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stylized
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using artistic forms and conventions to create effects; not natural or spontaneous
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What are some of the things that engravings of the first people of the Nile Valley depicted?
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Ordinary events, hunting wild game, boats, and herds of cattle
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Kingdoms of Egyptian civilization
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the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom
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Egyptian
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The Egyptian civilization rose out of a primitive predynastic civilization around 3000 BC and continued until 31 BC. The artwork of the Egyptians retained certain characteristics throughout the period, though there were some modifications. The art was generally in service of the gods, the pharaohs or the government and was often dedicated to ensuring a good afterlife for the nobility. Artwork came in many forms — from giant statues to small pieces of jewelry and pottery and even writing. Human figures were idealized; statues were fit homes for the gods and the wealthy adorned themselves with art in the form of jewelry and clothing.
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amphora
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vessel made for storing and transporting wine and foodstuffs
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curvilinear
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consisting of or bounded by curved lines
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foreshortening
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a technique used to create the illusion of an object receding into the background, large in front and smaller in the back
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incised
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carved or engraved
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porticoes
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porches or walkways with a roof supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of a building
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rectilinear
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characterized by straight lines
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slip
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a liquid used in the making of ceramic
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Greece is known as the birthplace of Western
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civilization
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The prehistoric Aegeans created figurines representing females. Look at the statuette at the beginning of the lesson. The figure is portrayed using the ….. geometric shape.
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triangular
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Greek art is characterized by the representation of …. beings
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human
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The Greek geographer Pausanias visited the city of … and described the temple of Demeter and a statue of Poseidon.
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Athens
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Statues from the Archaic period are characterized by a facial expression known as the … smile.
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Archaic
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The Greeks developed styles of columns … the Doric and Ionic.
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Columns
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axes
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plural of axis, which means a straight line meeting certain conditions
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contrapposto
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a human pose captured in a painting or a sculpture in which the head and shoulders are turned in a different direction from the legs and hips
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metopes
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panels on the Doric frieze of a Greek temple.
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myth
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a story passed on through oral tradition that eventually is accepted as historical truth
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taper
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a thin cylindrical shape that narrows at one end
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terra cotta
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a brownish-orange earthenware clay
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The Late Classical Greek art period saw a new, detailed characterization of … in the visual arts.
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Figures
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Most of the sculptures from the later Classical Greek art period are … because they were made from molds.
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Hollow
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To counteract the apparent distortions of perspective in the Parthenon, the architects who designed it actually created a(n) … illusion.
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Optical
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The Greeks designed and built the Parthenon in honor of which goddess?
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Athena
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The Classical period of Greek art and architecture ended with the war between Alexander the Great and the
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Persians
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The sculptor … oversaw building and decorating the Parthenon.
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Phidias
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In Greek mythology, the nine … were the patron-goddesses of the arts.
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Muses
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Classical Greek
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The Classical period began with the defeat of the Persians under the tyrant, Xerxes. Greek sculpture evolved from the stiff archaic figures to figures that were twisted and lifelike. Artists finally managed to achieve ideal proportions of the human figure. The Parthenon is one of the great architectural achievements of all time. The great statue of Athena within the Parthenon has disappeared, and many of the marble statues were taken to England by Lord Elgin where they remain today — to the consternation of many Greeks. The Classical period ended with the rise of Alexander the Great, at which point the Hellenistic period began.
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patina
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a dull surface that develops on a metal over time
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polychrome
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many-colored
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tufa
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dark local limestone
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tumulus
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mound
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votive
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a gift of gratitude to a deity
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Etruscans had a strong belief in _____.
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fate
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The Etruscans lived in the area known as _____.
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Rome
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The Etruscans made sculptures in all of the following materials
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bronze stone terra cotta
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The Etruscan civilization is considered to be the forerunner of _____.
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Rome
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Etruscan sculpture often incorporated mythological creatures.
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True
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The Etruscans, however, tended to flatten the lower part of the body and focus on the upper part with expressive faces and arms.
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….
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Etruscan painting was highly developed and used pigments created from stone and minerals.
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….
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The Etruscans, a great civilization that lasted approximately eight hundred years, lived in the area we now call Tuscany in the northwest of Italy. Because of abundant mineral resources, they were a wealthy nation and created great art, especially bronze and terra cotta statues. They were dominated by their religion and believed strongly in fate. Much of what we know about Etruscan art comes from their tomb art, including painted frescoes and carved reliefs. The human figures in these artworks tend to emphasize expressive faces and arms. The statues are shown with a smile similar to the Greek Archaic smile. The Romans eventually conquered the Etruscans and adopted much of their culture.
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Etruscans
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cella
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inner room or sanctuary of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, in which the statue of the god was situated
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consul
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Roman magistrate, comparable with a prime minister or a president
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eclectic
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made up of or combining elements from a variety of sources
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republic
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a political order whose head of state is not a king or queen; government is elected by at least some portion of the citizens
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stoic
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indifferent to pain or pleasure
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The ancestors of the Roman portrait bust can be traced to the stylized heads on _____ funerary jars and urns.
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Maybe: Etruscan Egyptian Persian
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Early Roman temples followed the floor plans from which civilization
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Etruscan
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Mosaics were rare, but murals were fairly common. Four Pompeian styles of mural painting have been identified.
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The First Style (popular between about 120 and 80 BC) — based on Greek interior decoration, sometimes called the Incrustation Style. Painted plaster relief is used to imitate the appearance of the lavish marble-riveted walls of the very wealthy. The Second Style (80 to 15 BC) — used perspective to create the illusion of vast spaces beyond the surface of the wall. Colonnades, gardens, theatrical stages, and round temples were popular motifs. The Third Style (20-10 BC) — was more ornate and less reliant on illusion. The Fourth Style (60-63 BC) — was a synthesis of the second and third styles.
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The Roman republic’s primary ruling body was the:
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senate
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The Roman adoption of many Etruscan and Greek styles of art The eclectic style of Roman art and the creation of the Roman style Roman preservation of Greek art Specific examples of the early empire and the Roman Republic recovered within the ruins of Pompeii
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aqueduct
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a pipe or channel that carries water over a great distance
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barrel vault
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an extension of the simple arch that forms a tunnel-like structure; a pipe or channel that carries water over a great distance
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basilica
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a public building for assemblies, rectangular in plan and with a columned aisle on each side
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circus
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a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, and displays featuring trained animals, jugglers, and acrobats
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The first emperor of the Roman Empire was:
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Julius Caesar
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The Roman civilization is credited with constructing all of the following
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circuses aqueducts theaters
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The following was built by the Romans
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Pantheon Column of Trajan Colosseum
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Following were Roman architectural innovations
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barrel vaults concrete windows that let in light
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After the Roman Empire was divided, there were two capitals. What were they?
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Rome Constantinople
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the extraordinary public works of the Roman Empire, including the Colosseum, aqueducts, and temples the role Roman ingenuity had in promoting a higher quality of living the much fabled arches and monuments that typify the glory of Rome the synthesis of beauty and utility found in Roman innovations such as the rounded arch, the barrel vault, the dome, concrete, and glass
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ambulatory
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an aisle circling the site of the choir or altar in a cathedral
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apse
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a large niche, semicircular or polygonal in shape and usually vaulted, protruding from the end wall of a building in a Christian Church; it contains the altar
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atrium
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an enclosed area in the front of a house or building that allows the sunlight to permeate the space. Sometimes it can be open and sometimes covered by a skylight.
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baptistery
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building used for baptismal rites and containing the baptismal font; sometimes merely a bay or chapel reserved for baptisms
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catacombs
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underground burial sites
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nave
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the central approach to the high altar. (from Latin navis meaning \”ship,\” suggested by the keel shape of its vaulting)
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porphyry
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an igneous rock distinguished by the a groundmass of minerals embedded with crystals
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martyria
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shrines dedicated to those killed for their religion
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mausoleum
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a large burial chamber, usually above ground
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The Christians in Jerusalem met in the catacombs for their worship services.
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True
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The early Christians all used the sign of the cross from the very beginning.
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False
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What is the most basic reason Christians began to build church buildings, or have them built?
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They needed a public place of worship.
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What are some of the items of metalwork made for the Christian altar?
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goblets wine vessels candlesticks chalices
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early Christian art as it was first practiced in the catacombs Christian funerary art the two styles of the Christian basilica the Christian tendency to decorate manuscripts and altar pieces
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abstraction
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a concept that is open to many interpretations due to its lack of specific or concrete information
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arcade
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a line of arches and their supporting columns
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crusaders
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knights who went to the holy land from Europe on what they saw as a quest to free Jerusalem from Islam and to find holy relics
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niche
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a recess in a wall meant to house a statue
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pendentives
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a triangular curved surface between two arches and beneath a dome
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Diocletian restored order to Rome and instituted important reforms.
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True
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Byzantium looked to the west for cultural inspiration.
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False
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Constantinople became a religious center and a melting pot of eastern and western cultures.
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True
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Constantinople was located on the site of the ancient city Byzantium.
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True
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Mosaics were well adapted to express the mystic character of Orthodox Christianity.
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True
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Fresco painting was preferred in Byzantine art
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True
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Church architecture dominant in Byzantine period
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basilica
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The conglomeration of the buildings of the Hagia Sophia seem to rise in this shape
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pyramid
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In 1453, the Hagia Sophia was turned into
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a mosque
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Muslims added these to the exterior of the Hagia Sophia
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minarets
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A sacred image representation is called
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an icon
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Exterior walls of Hagia Sophia are this
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plain
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Pendentives in the Hagia Sophia are this shape
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triangular
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Mosaics were created with small cubes of this
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painted glass
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Artist uses this in the mosaic of Empress Theodora to create the effect of drapery
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light and dark
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Fresco painting eventually replaced this type of art, due to its cost
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mosaics
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In \”Raising of Lazarus,\” the gap between Lazarus’s corpse and the living Savior represents this
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death
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He overthrew Constantinople in 1453
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Mehmed II
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Byzantine Orthodox Christian art and its religious purposes the fusion of Greco-Roman and Oriental styles to create the unique Byzantine style the high level of organization and decoration used for Byzantine churches the far reach of the Byzantine artistic legacy
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Byzantine
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caliphs
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an Islamic supreme leader, considered a successor to Muhammad
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calligraphy
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the use of line in a flowing, flamboyant manner
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idolatrous
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engaged in the worship of images or idols
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mihrab
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niche
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qibla
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the direction in which Muslims pray (facing toward the Kaaba, a holy place in Mecca)
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riwaqs
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arcades
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sahn
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an enclosed courtyard
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zulla
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a rough portico
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Minarets and domes are common features of mosques.
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True
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The architectural feature of the Islamic artists that came from the Romans was _____.
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the horseshoe arch…?
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The Shrine of the Dome of the Rock is located in _____.
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the atrium of Al-Aqsa Mosque
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The atrium of Al-Aqsa Mosque is _____.
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an oasis of peace and tranquility with trees, lawns, and fountains
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Pottery was an important and innovative art form in Islamic art.
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True
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The favored metal of Islamic artists is _____.
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bronze
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the influence of earlier civilizations on Islamic art — notably Greece, Persia, and Byzantine the adoption of Christian basilicas into mosques the work of the great Islamic architect Sinan the depiction of elaborate geometric and floral designs Islamic pottery, glass, manuscript illumination, bronze and rugs
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Islamic
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chalice
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a large cup used to hold the wine believed to become the blood of Christ in the ritual of the Catholic Mass
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cloister
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covered walk within a monastery or nunnery often looking onto a courtyard
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filigree
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delicate gold or silver ornaments commonly made of twisted wire
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reliquaries
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containers or shrines for relics; these may be the physical remains of saints
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Name the three elements that blend to make early Medieval art.
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Christianity Greek/Roman remnants Celtic-Germanic culture
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Name two items found in the Anglo-Saxon burial mounds at Sutton Hoo.
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A viking ship with treasure cloisonné shoulder clasps
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When Patrick returned to Ireland in 433 AD, he set about to evangelize the _____.
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Druids
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acanthus
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a plant from the Mediterranean that is used the decorate paintings within manuscripts
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choir
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the area of a church where the singers stand
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clerestory
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a row of windows on top of the wall
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egg-and-dart
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a sequence of decorative figures that are in the shape of an egg
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masonry
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the art of building something with stones and/or bricks
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pier
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a support used in masonry that is larger than a column
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tribune
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an upper story over an aisle, opening on to the nave; also called a gallery
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triforium
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passage with arcade
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tympanum
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a triangle-shaped decorative region that is located between an arch and the bar of a window
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People living during the Middle Ages were:
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active in pilgrimages very superstitious
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Paintings and sculpture were often used in houses of worship for what purposes?
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Beautify and instruct
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The following are characteristics of Romanesque churches
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massive structure bays clerestory windows round arches capping doors and windows pointed arches decorations of moldings, carvings and sculptures
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The leaning tower of Pisa was begun in _____.
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1173
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The design plan known as a chevet included a long choir with _____ side aisles.
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semicircular
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The prevalence of Romanesque architecture during the Medieval period is also evident in England.
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True
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The Basilica … of presents the evils of Lust and Despair.
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Saint Mary Magladene
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Romanesque art is often characterized by:
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long, angular, flat figures
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the influence of the classical Roman period on Romanesque art and architecture the incorporation of relief carvings, vaults, arches and domes in the churches and monasteries of Medieval Europe the introduction of Romanesque architecture in England by the Normans the resurgence of stone sculpture
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Romanesque
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abbot-the superior of an abbey of monks laity-in Christianity, members of a religious community who do not have the priestly responsibilities of ordained clergy medallion-circular panel of several pieces of glass leaded together monochromatic-consisting of one color opaque-does not reflect light rood screen-a screen that separates the nave and the choir in a churchl tracery-the bars of a Gothic window; these bars create a matrix or decorative pattern transept-the north and south projections or \”arms\” of the cross transverse-lying across; imagine lying a stick lying across the tracks vellum-animal skin used for art and writing
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Vocab for
question

Which of the following cities was the intellectual center of Europe at the end of the eleventh century?
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Paris
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Following are characteristics of Gothic architecture
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pointed arches flying buttresses (see description below) the altar at the far east end (cut off from the laity) rood screen and long choir pointed transverse arches thin intersecting arches light masonry cells
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Gothic stained glass windows
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rose windows — large medallion, located high in the west end and the transept. storytelling windows — subject matter includes Biblical stories as well as stories from the lives of Christ and the saints. monochromatic panes of white glass — admitted more light and were less expensive. illustrations of guild craftsmen at their work. The stained glass \”light painting\” in the cathedral at Chartres, above, is believed to be the masterpiece of the 13th century. With 176 windows shooting beams of colored light into the interior, the cathedral attains a jewel-like quality.
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The Rayonnant style of Gothic architecture was known for its:
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radiating patterns of rose windows
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All of the following are characteristics of the Strasbourg style
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emphasis on emotion draping effect of stone clothing emphasis on dramatic gestures
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the towering cathedrals of the Gothic age the use of innovations like flying buttresses, pointed arches, and ribbed vaults in cathedrals the elaborate stone work used to adorn cathedral façade the careful use of stained glass in strategic locations around cathedrals the naturalistic sculptures that decorated the interior and exteriors of cathedrals
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French Gothic
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animated- full of life expressionistic -from Expressionism, a style that often has an emotional dimension lancet-long, narrow window with pointed head lyricism-characterized by emotion, subjectivity, and imagination.
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Vocab Gothic Dissemination
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A main difference between English Gothic and French Gothic is _____.
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the English were not as concerned with height
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The Perpendicular style is characterized by all
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vertical lines in the tracery and paneling elaborate traceried fan vaulting roofs of complex open-timber
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Spanish architects borrowed heavily from the French \”flamboyant\” style, a term derived from _____.
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s-curved flamelike tracery
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German and French Gothic cathedrals are similar in all what ways
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soaring heights lack of breadth and openness not possessing a strongly projecting transept
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Nicola Pisano’s carvings at Pisa emphasize the individuality of the human figure.
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True
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The Italians rejected Gothic architecture
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True
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Giotto is considered the \”Father of Western art.\”
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True
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the adoption of French Gothic architecture by several other European countries the evolution of French Gothic architecture when absorbed by other cultures, e.g., the Perpendicular style in England the synthesis of the French Gothic and classical Roman styles demonstrated in Italy the role of Italian painter Giotto in setting the stage for Renaissance art
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Gothic Dissemnation
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altarpiece- a decorative piece such as a painting or sculpture that is used to ornament the church altar. It is the table where Mass is performed. genre- a style of painting that depicts scenes from everyday life glazes- thin, semi-transparent layers put over color polyptych- characterized by four or more sections or panels print – a picture or design printed from an engraving surreal- dreamlike; resembling a dream virtuoso- performer of exceptional technical skill
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NORTHERN EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE
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What are three themes that became important during the Renaissance?
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fame feasting fashion
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The most important thing that happened in the Renaissance era was the sudden concern with _____.
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perspective
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Explain briefly in what way Jan van Eyck’s artwork is well-known.
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Jan van Eyck’s artwork is most well-known for realism and the use of light, as well as his unidealized realism portraits, which is much different than classical antiquity or Greco-Roman art.
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Brueghel the Elder adapted the early style of _____
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Flemish
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the innovations in painting and print-making during the Renaissance in Northern Europe Jan van Eyck’s role in the introduction of oil painting early examples of symbolism in painting the emotional qualities of Hugo van der Goes’ work the first Protestant painter, Albrecht DĂĽrer the attention paid to perspective and proportion by painters.
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Northern European
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patronage- a system whereby wealthy persons funded artists by commissioning artworks trompe l’oeil- a painting that fools the eye
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Italian Renaissance
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Cosimo Medici hired Brunelleschi to build a _____ for a cathedral in Florence.
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dome
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Masaccio is responsible for ushering in a new approach to painting that was naturalistic. This approach was less about details and decoration and more focused on simplicity and unity. It was concerned more with illusion of three-dimensionality.
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True
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While Renaissance artists preferred to glorify the body; in the Middle ages, the body was seen as _____.
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an obstacle
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In the painting The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, the human figures are _____.
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lifelike
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The Early Renaissance period in Italy and how it related to architecture, sculpture, and painting Ghiberti and Donatello’s roles in introducing Renaissance ideals of realistic human figures in sculpture The refinement of earlier techniques by Botticelli and Mantegna
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Italian Ren
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atmospheric perspective- sequentially using lighter colors for each region of the painting. This technique creates a sense of distance for objects that are distant in the painting chiaroscuro- using light and shadow to define forms codex- book composed of folded sheets sewn along one edge optics- the branch of physics that studies the physical properties of light sfumato- (from the Italian for smoke) an imperceptible, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clear break or line
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Vocab for Leonardo da Vinci
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While in Milan, da Vinci created _____ for the Milan Cathedral dome. Select all that apply.
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paintings sketches drawings theatre designs prototypes
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pieta- picture or sculpture of Mary mourning with her dead son Jesus Christ across her lap
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Michelangelo
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Michelangelo’s name
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Michelangelo Di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
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Why did Michelangelo sculpt the mother figure in his Pieta as a young woman?
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Mary, the mother in the painting, was depicted as a young woman to symbolize the purity of the soul
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Which of the following is NOT one of the stories depicted in the Sistine Chapel?
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God Separating Light from Darkness Creation of Adam, the Creation of Eve Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve The Flood The Last Judgement (along the back wall)
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Michelangelo restored and enhanced the design of ______, while he was the chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica.
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Bramante
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Where is the original wooden model of the dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica (created by Michelangelo) located?
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The Vatican
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Michelangelo’s preferred art form was _____.
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sculpture
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For the dome’s exterior, Michelangelo used a ribbed design from what city?
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Florence
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Michelangelo’s life and famous works, such as: Pieta David Sistine Chapel Saint Peter’s Basilica
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.,..
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devotional imagery- artwork produced for the purposes of worship, prayer or religious instruction or inspiration lyrical- expressing deep emotion stanze- rooms symmetrical- a mirror-image (though not exact) balance tone- the feeling created by the picture
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Great Ren Painters
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Raphael was an assistant and student under the painter
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Perugino
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Which of the following is not one of Raphael’s paintings?
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Venus of Urbino
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How did the Catholic Church pay for the many religious works of art?
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Indulgences
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Which of the following artists is responsible for painting on canvas and helping to make this a common practice?
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Titian
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Titian’s paintings can be characterized by which of the following?
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vibrant color free brushwork atmospheric tone monumental figures idealized landscapes
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Raphael’s three-dimensionality in his paintings Raphael’s use of chiaroscuro harmony within Raphael’s work the poetic qualities of Titian’s work the symbols used by Titian in his work, often portrayed by vibrant colors and free brushstrokes, which are considered poetic
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question

ambiguity- open to two or more interpretations artifice- made by intention and not nature, skillful and clever, sometimes tricky calligraphic- using flowing, decorative lines mysticism- immediate consciousness of the transcendent or ultimate reality or God
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Mannerism
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The following are characteristics of Mannerist painting?
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imbalanced composition (often circular rather than pyramid) visual complexity and ambiguity unusual depictions of traditional themes themes of courtly behavior and sophistication
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All of the following were Mannerist artists
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Fiorentino Parmigianino Tintoretto
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El Greco’s work
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Saint Dominic in Prayer The Holy Family The Burial of the Count of Orgaz
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… was the most influential architect of the Mannerist period.
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Palladio
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the hallmarks of the Renaissance — centralization and harmony mannerism as a reaction against harmony the distorted proportions of the human figure in Mannerism Pontormo as the first significant Mannerist painter
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Mannerism ideas
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baldachin a- pillared canopy luminosity- having the quality of light verisimilitude- possessing the quality of truth
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Italian Baroque art
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If a painting has verisimilitude, it is _____.
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Truthful
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A person in the Baroque period would most likely _____.
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be more open-minded about religion and science than previous people
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Qualities of the Baroque era include all of the following
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sense of movement energy tension realism feeling of infinite space In painting and sculpture, light and shadow contrast to create a dramatic effect
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Italian Baroque architecture is typified by all of the following except _____.
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simple, unadorned facades
question

Caravaggio’s work was shocking because of _____.
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Realism
question

The intended effect of Bernini’s colonnade at Saint Peter’s Church is _____.
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to embrace people in the \”arms\” of the Catholic Church
question

Who was the patron of Velázquez?
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Phillip IV
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the contradiction and conflict of the Baroque period the beginnings of the scientific revolution, as defined by the prominence of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton the flourishing of religious art despite enhanced secularization motion, energy, and drama in Baroque art Caravaggio’s extreme realism
answer

….
question

carravesque- in the style of Caravaggio sensuous- appealing to the senses; taking delight in beauty still lifes- arrangements of non-human objects in an artful manner voluptuous- having a large bosom and pleasing curves; having strong sexual appeal
answer

Northern European Baroque Art
question

When the Dutch Protestants rebelled against the Roman Catholic church, the Spanish king quelled the uprising.
answer

True
question

Dutch merchants were interested in what kind of artwork?
answer

landscapes portraits still lifes genre painting
question

Peter Paul Rubens’s artistic style can be characterized by all of the following
answer

animated, exuberant, and sensuous.
question

The famous Dutch painter whose qualities included glowing light against dark backgrounds and truthful rendering of his subjects was:
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Rembrandt
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Some called Rembrandt’s technique One contemporary painter called Rembrandt’s paintings a mess of this: He had tremendous control over this: The result seems like this Every coincidence adds to the effect of the perfect
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wizardly, smudges, medium, coincidence, illusion
question

Dutch painter Jan Vermeer was famous for his _____.
answer

Composition and use of space
question

the characteristics of Italian Baroque art were whole-heartedly adopted and transformed by artists in Northern Europe. Flanders and the Dutch Republic produced three of the greatest artists of all time: Peter Paul Rubens, who painted sensuous pictures featuring voluptuous women (female figures who inspired the term \”Rubenesque\”); Rembrandt, whose dazzling virtuosity in chiaroscuro and in \”coarse\” realism set a new standard; and Vermeer, who used light in a dramatic way. in France, the Palace of Versailles provided an example of quintessential Baroque architecture.
answer

….
question

arabesque- an ornament that interlaces simulated foliage in an intricate design grotto- a small cave; an artificial cavern-like retreat iridescent having- a play of lustrous rainbow colors opulence- rich showiness; overabundance satirize- to ridicule or mock
answer

question

The Swing by Jean Honoré Fragonard embodies the spirit of the French Revolution.
answer

False
question

Hogarth’s Marriage A-la-Mode paintings correspond to, and sometimes deliberately evoke, French art and Rococo design.
answer

True
question

The eighteenth-century in France and England was a time of great changes The middle class grew richer and stronger The printing press meant that many more people were literate While the aristocracy promoted an opulent art style in France, the English were exploring the idea of liberty in art, landscape and society Painters such as Watteau and Fragonard in France emphasized love and sex. In England, painters such as Gainsborough and Hogarth painted portraits that both romanticized and satirized the aristocracy.
answer

….
question

diffused- a light that spreads soft shadows, may be filtered through translucent material empiricism- the doctrine that says sense experience is the only source of knowledge intelligentsia- the intellectuals of a particular time and place salon- a gathering of people for the purposes of discussion treatise- a written work on a particular subject tyranny- dictatorship: a government that is ruled by one dictator, who is usually brutal
answer

The Enlightenment and Neuroclassicism
question

Denis Didero once stated that all of the following were means to acquiring knowledge
answer

observation of nature, reflection, and experimentation
question

Which of the following men was an outspoken critic in regards to the perceived tyranny of church and state?
answer

Voltaire
question

The following correctly describe the ideals of Enlightenment thinkers?
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noble simplicity perfection harmony logic solemnity morality
question

Thomas Jefferson’s home in Virginia is call Monticello, which in Italian means _____.
answer

little mountain
question

All of the following describe Jacques-Louis David’s painting, Oath of the Horatii, except for:
answer

simple palette
question

The eighteenth century was a time of major political upheaval, when the middle class grew larger, becoming richer and better educated, and demanded freedom from oppressive policies of the church and state In the United States of America, the Constitution also demanded a separation of church and state The ideals of the Enlightenment took root in Neoclassical art; artists working in the Neoclassical style looked to ancient Greece and Rome for their inspiration They abandoned the ornate opulence of the Baroque and Rococo periods and instead focused on creating clean, balanced compositions The figures in these artworks tended to be heroic, and the work typically carried a moral meaning.
answer

Enlight Neo
question

lucid- transparently clear; easily understandable sublime- the quality of greatness or vast magnitude, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, or artistic value- relative darkness or lightness of a color
answer

Romanticism
question

Select all the qualities that are typical of Romantic art.
answer

nature death destruction freedom individuality
question

The sensibility of Romanticism is feeling.
answer

True
question

We consider Goya’s painting The Third of May to be \”Romantic\” because _____.
answer

it conveys strong emotions
question

Death of Saranapalus by Delacroix demonstates all of the following except _____.
answer

a balanced and harmonious composition
question

Modern artists have rejected Romanticism and are more influenced by Classical works.
answer

False
question

Romanticism was set into motion by the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a French philosopher and writer Romantics were inspired by emotions rather than reason and they had a desire for freedom and individuality Such painters as Fuseli, Goya, Gericault, Delacroix and Friedrich employed dramatic subjects, severe light and dark contrasts, and violent compositions to create an emotional charge in their work English and American painters such as Turner and Cole took these same qualities and applied them to landscapes
answer

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