Army First Aid FM 4-25.11

What FM covers First Aid?
FM 4-25.11

What does TCCC stand for?
Tactical Combat Casualty Care

What are the 3 phases of TCCC?
Care under fire
Tactical field care
Combat casualty evacuation care

What does CASEVAC stand for?
Casualty evacuation (typically in a nonmedical vehicle or aircraft, because in a medical craft it is referred to as MEDEVAC)

What is the biggest threat to a casualty’s life in combat?
Bleeding

What are the 4 levels of consciousness?
Alert
Responds to voice
Responds to pain
Unresponsive

What is FMC?
Field medical care, typically initiated by a medic or certified combat life saver

What are the 9 symptoms of shock?
Sweaty cool skin
Pale Skin
Restlessness (Nervousness)
Thirst
Severe Bleeding
Confusion
Rapid Breathing
Blue Skin
Nausea (vomiting)

What are the 4 types of burns?
Chemical
Electrical
Laser
Thermal

What is the object of first aid?
Stop Bleeding
Overcome Shock
Relieve Pain
Prevent infection

What is the ABCs of first aid?
open Airway, restore breathing
stop Bleeding, protect wound
Circulation, prevent shock

Should a casualty be given water?
No a casualty should not eat or drink.

What are the 3 types of heat injuries?
Heat Cramps
Heat Exhaustion
Heat STroke

What are the 2 types of fractures?
Open and Closed

How do you diagnose a open fracture?
Look for bleeding
Bones sticking out of the skin
Check pulse

How do you diagnose a closed fracture?
Swelling
Discoloration of the skin
Deformity
Unusual body position

Where should you splint the casualty?
Splint them where the lie

What is the treatment for shock?
(PELCRN)
Position the casualty on their back
Elevate their legs
Loosen restrictive clothing (especially around neck and waist)
Climatize the casualty
Reassure the casaulty
Notify medical personel

What methods can you use to stop bleeding?
Apply field dressing
Manual pressure
Elevate limb
Apply pressure dressing
Digital pressure
Apply tourniquet

What is the COLD acronym?
COLD refers to the wear cold weather protective gear
Keep gear CLEAN
Don’t OVERHEAT
Dress in LOOSE LAYERS
Keep gear DRY

What are the symptoms of Heat Cramps?
Cramping in the extremities (arms and legs)
Abdominal Cramps (stomach)
Excessive Sweating

What are the symptoms of Heat Exhaustion?
Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin
Headache
Weakness
Dizziness
Loss of appetite
Cramping
Nausea (with or without vomiting)
Urge to defecate
Chills (Gooseflesh)
Rapid Breathing
Tingling of Hands/Feet
Confusion

What are the symptoms of Heat Stroke?
Skin is red, hot and dry
Weakness
Dizziness
Confusion
Headaches
Seizures
Nausea
Stomach pains or cramps
Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak
Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly

What is the treatment for Heat Cramps?
Move the casualty to a cool, shady area (or improvise shade if none is available)
Loosen his clothing (if not in a chemical environment)
Have him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water (Cool water if available)
Seek medical assistance should cramps continue

What is the treatment for Heat Exhaustion?
Move the casualty to a cool, shady area (or improvise shade if none is available)
Loosen or remove their clothing and boots (unless in a chemical environment)
Pour water on the casualty and fan them
Have them slowly drink at least one canteen of water
Elevate their legs
Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives
(If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day)

What is the treatment for Heat Stroke?
Move the casualty to a cool, shady area (or improvising shade if none is available)
Loosening or removing his clothing (except in a chemical environment)
Spraying or pouring water on the casualty and fanning them (to permit the coolant effect of evaporation)
Massage their extremities and skin (increasing the blood flow to those body areas, thus aiding the cooling process)
Elevate the casualty’s legs
Have them slowly drink at least one canteen full of water (if they are conscious)
Seek medical assistance immediately