Archaeology Anth

archaeology
A cultural anthropology of the human past focusing on material evidence of human modification of the physical environment

archaeological record
All materials objects constructed by human or near-humans reveled by archaeology

site
A precise geographical location of the remains of past human activity

artifacts
objects that have been deliberately and intelligently shaped by human or near-human activity

features
non-portable remnants from the past. such as house walls or ditches

ethnoarchaeology
the study of the way present day societies use artifacts and structures and how these objects become part of the archaeological record

survey
The physical examination of a geographical region in which promising sites are most likely to be found.

subsistence strategy
different ways that people in different societies go about meeting their basic materials survival needs

Band
A small, predominantly forging society of 50 or fewer members that divides labor by age and sex only and provides relatively equal access for all adults to wealth power and prestige

tribe
A farming or herding society, usually larger than a band that relies on kinship as a framework for social and political life; provides relatively egalitarian social relations but may have a chief who has more prestige (but not more power or wealth) than others. Sometimes called a rank society

Chiefdom
A socially stratified society, generally larger than a tribe, in which a chief and close relatives enjoy privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige and which has greater craft production but few full-time specialties.

state
An economic, political, and ideological entity invented by stratified societies; possesses specialized government institutions to administer services ad collect taxes and tributes; monopolizes use of force with armies and police; posses high level and quality of craft production. Often developed writing (particularly in early states).

empire
Forms when one state conquers another

sodalities
Special-purpose groupings that may be organized on the basis of age, sex. economic role and personal interest.

status
A particular social position in a group.

historical archaeology
the study of archaeological sites associated with written records, frequently the study of post-European contact sites in the world.

cosmopolitanism
Being able to move with ease from one cultural setting another

agriculture
The systematic modification of environments of plants and animals to increase their productivity and usefulness

agroecology
The systematically modified environment (or constructed niche) which becomes the only environment within which domesticated plants can flourish

sedentism
The process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place

social stratification
A form of social organization in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige

neolithic
The “New Stone Age,” which began with the domestication of plants 10,300 years ago

egalitarian
Social relations in which no great difference in wealth, power, or prestige divide members from one another.

surplus production
The production of amounts of food that exceed the basis subsistence needs of the population

occupational specialization
Specializations of various occupations (e.g. weaving or pot making) or in new social roles (e.g. king or priest) that is found in social complex societies

class
A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria

complex societies
Societies with large populations, an extensive division of labor, and occupational specialization

monumental architecture
Architectural constructions of greater-than-human scale, such as pyramids, temples, and tombs.

concentrations
_________ of particular artifacts. Sets of artifacts indicating that particular social activities took place at a particular area in an archeological site when that site was inhabited in the past.

sherds
pieces of broken pots

context
The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed.