APUSH Chapter 17 IDs

Homestead lockout
The lockout of workers at the Homestead steel mill, after Carngegie refused to renew the Union Contract. As a result, Union supporters attacked the guards hired to close them out and protect strikebreakers who had been employed by the mill. The National Guard soon suppressed this resistance
management revolution
An internal management structure adopted by many large, complex corporations that distinguished top executives from those responsible for day-to-day operations and departmentalized operations by function (crafter, sculpter, boxer, etc)
vertical integration
A model in which a company controlled ALL aspects of production from raw materials to finished goods
horizontal integration
A model in which after driving competitors to the brink of failure through predatory pricing, these same companies would be requested to merge with the main company into a conglomerate (usually had no choice)
Legal form that organized a small group of associates-board of trustees- to hold stock from a group of combined firms, managing them as a single entity
The elimination of skilled labor under the system of mechanized manufacturing, in which workers completed discrete, small-scale tasks rather than crafting an entire product
mass production
System of production of goods based on assembly of standardized parts (individualized). Also, utlized machines that operated with little human oversight
scientific management
A system of organizing work designed to coax maximum outputs from the individual workers increase efficiencies, and reduce production costs. This was done by training workers to “do what they are told promptly w/o asking questions”
Chinese Exclusion Act
Act that barred Chinese laborers from entering the US. This law did not end until the 1940s
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Thousands of railroad workers walked off the job and protested steep wage cuts amid the depressing that had begun in 1873. They protested the growing power of railroad corporations as well
Greenback-Labor Party
National political movement calling on the govt to increase the money supply in order to assist borrowers and foster economic growth; Greenbackers also called for greater regulation of corporations and laws enforcing an eight hour workday; Also protested the collapse of Reconstruction
Ideology [Greenback ideology] that dismissed middlemen, bankers, lawyers, etc as idlers who lived off of the sweat of artisans, and people who pertook in manual labor
Granger laws
Economic regulatory laws triggered by pressure of farmers and Greenbackers. The goal of the Granger laws was to make pricing of railroad rates more favorable to farmers
Knights of Labor
Union/secret society that believed ordinary people needed control over the enterprises in which they worked. They proposed to set up shops owned by the employees, a system called cooperative commonwealth. They also bridged boundaries of ethnicity, gender, ideologies, race to build a universal brotherhood of labor
The revolutionary advocacy of a stateless society. Held meeting at Haymarket Square
Haymarket Square
Conflict in Chicago in which both workers and policemen were killed/wounded during a labor demonstartion by local anarchists.
Farmers’ Alliance
Rural movement that began in the aftermath of the Haymarket riots that damaged the knights of labor. This new alliance advocated cooperative stores and exchanges that would circumvent middlement, and it called for greater govt aid to farmers and stricter regulation of railroads
Interstate Commerce Act
Act that counteracted a supreme court decision (Wabash v. Illinois) that had struck down state’s authority to regulate railroads. The act also created the ICC (Interstate Commerce Comission) that was responsible for forcing railroads to make their rates public.
closed shop
Trade union with all jobs reserved fo union members- kept out lower wage workers
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Organization that coordinated the acitivites of craft unions and called for direct negotiation with employers in order to ahcieve benefits for skilled workers. Far less welcoming to blacks and wome. (formed after Haymarket riots)
Andrew Carnegie
Migrated to the US from Scotland as a child, and found work as an errand boy for the PA railroad. He was encouraged by Republican tariffs to enter the steel industry, creating a steel mill in Homestead PA. Carnegie figured that machines would eventually be able to replace skilled workers (much less $$)
Gustavus Swift
Saw that local slaughterhouses lacked the scale to utlize waste by-products and cut labor costs. He also created assembly lines, where each worker repeated the same task over and over. He ALSO pioned vertical integration, in which a company controlled ALL aspects of production
John D. Rockefeller
Went into the kerosene buisness and borrowed heavily to expand it. His firm (Standard Oil) within a few years was Cleveland’s leading oil refinery. He also pioneered Horizontal integration, in which companies forced merges through predatory pricing
Henry George
Wrote “Progress and Poverty” in 1879 which warened Americans that they had been too optimistic about the impact of railroads and manufacturing. He believed the emerging industrial order would lead to permanent poverty, and would push the lower class into deskilled, low paying labor
Terence Powderly
Leader of the Knights of Labor, and warned that the abuse of alcohol robbed workers of their wages the same way that ruthless employers did. He tried his best to also avoid strikes, which were costly and risky.
Leonora Barry
Worked as a full-time organizer for the Knights of Labor. She became a labor advocate out of the horror of the conditions she experienced on the job. She also investigated and exposed evidence of sexual harassment on the job
Samuel Gompers
Leader of the AFL that believed the Knights of Labor was flawed, as it telied too much on electoral politics and was too capitalist. He instead believed in pure-and-simple-unionism, which aimed for collective bargaining with worker’s employees

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