Applications of the Immune Response Flashcard

What is a vaccination?
The practice of deliberately stimulating the immune system in order to protect individuals against a disease.
Who developed the first official vaccination?
Edward Jenner – smallpox – variolation technique using cowpox virus
Is it possible for a portion of the population to become immune to a disease either through natural immunity or vaccination?
What is herd immunity?
The inability of an infection to spread within a population due to the lack of susceptibility.
What is naturally-acquired active immunity?
Natural exposure to an antigen causes a person to create their own antibodies.

Ex: Getting over chicken pox.

What is Naturally-acquired passive immunity?
Natural activities provide the individual with antibodies that someone else has made after natural exposure to an antigen.

Ex: Mother to child through breast milk or across placenta

What is Artificially-acquired active immunity?
Deliberate exposure to antigen via an injection causes the person to make their own antibodies to the antigen.

Ex: Immunization

What is Artifically-acquired passive immunity?
Deliberate introduction of antibodies made by some other individual into the body of the patient.

Ex: RhoGAM and antivenom

What is a vaccine?
a preparation of living or inactivated microorganisms, viruses, or their components used to induce active immunity.
What are the requirements of a safe vaccine?
2.)few side effects
3.)provide lasting immunity against a specific illness by inducing antibodies, immune response or both.
4.)low cost
5.)stable with a long shelf life
6.)easy to administer
What is an attenuated vaccine?
A weakened form of the disease-causing agent. Still alive.
An attenuated vaccine is generally _____ to cause disease but can still induce an ______ _______.
disease/immune response
Does an attenuated vaccine usually cause an infection with undetectable symtpoms?
Can be spread from an ________ person to a ____-________ people, inadvertently immunizing people.
Can attenuated strains cross the placenta?
What can they do since they can be spread?
Cause disease in immunosupressed people.
Can some attenuated forms mutate back to the disease-causing form it came from?
What are examples of an attenuated vaccine?
tuberculosis, MMR, oral polio, chickenpox, flu mist.
What are innactivated vaccines?
Forms that are unable to replicate but still cause immune response.
Can inactivated diseases cause infection, revert to dangerous forms, or be passed on to others?
The magnitude of immune response by inactivated vaccines is _____. Most require ______ exposures.
limited. multiple.
What is an adjuvant?
a substance that enhances the immune response to the antigen
What are the two categories of inactivated vaccines?
1.)whole agents
2.)fractions of the agents
What are whole agents?
dead microorganisms or inactivated viruses. ex: flu shot.
What are fractions of the agent?
Only pieces of the microorganisms that can induce an immune response.
What are some examples of fractions of the agent?
Toxoids – inactivated toxins
Protein subunit vaccines – composed of key protein antigens of the infectous agents.
Polysaccaride vaccines – composed of polysaccarides that make up the capsule of certain microorganisms
What is serology?
Use of serum antibodies to detect and identify antigens, or conversely, use of known antigens to detect antibodies.
What is a titer?
A measure of the amounbt of specific antibody in a serum.
What is a monoclonal body?
Contain only one antibody with one specificity. commonly used in immunoassays.
What is an ELISA?
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay
How is an ELISA performed?
KNown antigen is attached to plastic wells. The serum is added/incubated and if antibodies are present they will bind to the antigen. To detect if antigen-antibody rxn have occur, HGG is added which reacts with any bound antibodies and the excess is washed away. A chromogen is added and color end product is produced if antibodies were present.
What is a western-blot?
Combination of electrophoesis with ELISA to separate and identify proteins antigents in a mixture.
What is the fluorescent antibody technique?
Indirect – detects presence of antibodies produced in response to an antigen. SYPHILUS.

If it gets illuminated, you have it ya skank~!

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