Apologia Physical Science Module 4 – Study Guide

Electrolysis
The use of electricity to break down a molecule into smaller units

Polar Molecule
A molecule that has slight positive and negative charges due to an imbalance in the way electrons are shared

Solvent
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

Solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solvent

Cohesion
The phenomenon that occurs when individual molecules are so strongly attracted to each other that they tend to stay together, even when exposed to tension

Hard Water
Water that has certain dissolved ions in it – predominately calcium and magnesium ions

A certain molecule is composed of atoms that all pull on electrons with the same strength. Will this molecule be polar?
No

Baking soda dissolves in water. Will it dissolve in vegetable oil (a nonpolar substance)?
No

Carbon tetrachloride will not dissolve in water. Is it most likely to be made up of ionic, polar, or nonpolar molecules?
Nonpolar molecules

Suppose you were able to count the molecules in a substance. Which would have more molecules, 1 liter of liquid water or 1 liter of ice?
Water

Which would have more molecules, 1 liter of liquid butter or 1 liter of solid butter?
Solid Butter

What is responsible for water being liquid at room temperature as well as for water’s cohesion?
Hydrogen Bonding

What causes surface tension?
Cohesion

Why is water harder in certain regions of the world than in others?
There are more ion-containing rocks in those regions

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