APES Environmental Laws

National Environmental Policy Act (1970)
Protects against large scale pollution and requires EIS to assess damage of decisions.
Enforced by the Council on Environmental Quality
Water Resources Planning Act (1965)
Maximizes the efficiency of use of water for industry, agriculture, and municipal use
Water Resources Development Act (2013)
Allows Army Corps of Engineers to come in and develop on waterways, as well as monitor what is developed on or near waterways.
Soil Conservation and Development Allotment Act (1936)
Allows the government to pay farmers to reduce crop production and rotate to allow the soil to recover
Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act (1997)
Provides the U.S. Department of Agriculture with broad planning authority and strategic assessment of conservation, protection, and enhancement of soil, water, and related natural resources
International Conference on Population and Development (1994)
Emphasized human rights such as individual dignity and family planning when developing
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968)
Protected aesthetic beauty from anything that would alter its natural state
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Control Act (1947)
Prevents from the overuse of insecticides, fungicides, and rodenticides to avoid excess runoff into waterways
Enforced by EPA
Wilderness Act (1964)
Recognizes wilderness and defines it, created national preservation system to enclose wilderness areas and keep them wild and natural
National Forest Management Act (1976)
Calls for management of natural resources in national forests and also governs the administration of forests (what can be built/done)
Enforced by U.S. Forest Service
Federal Land Policy and Management Act (1976)
Set wilderness study areas, oversees usage of land, property ownership of land, fees and management
Enforced by Bureau of Land Management, USFS
General Mining Law (1872)
Authorizes citizens over 18 to mine for minerals to try and prevent mining pollution (nobody younger)
Enforced by EPA
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977)
Regulates environmental effects of coal mines, reclaims abandoned oil/mine areas
Enforced by OSW
Marina Mammal Protection Act (1972)
Protects marine mammals by outlawing their capture and sale of their products
Enforced by the Department of the Interior
Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (1976)
Phased out foreign fishing in international waters to create a domestic industry and prevent overfishing
Enforced by NOAA
Montreal Protocol
(1989) International agreement to limit the production of CFCs and other compounds that harm the ozone layer
Kyoto Protocol
(1997) International agreement to limit CO2 emissions to decrease the effects of global warming
Clean Water Act (1977)
Ensures that U.S. waters remain safe for recreation and fishing and are not overly polluted (not groundwater!)
Enforced by EPA
Ocean Dumping Ban (1988)
Banned ocean water dumping of municipal sewage sludge and industrial waste
Enforced by EPA
Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982)
Creates procedures by which companies are required to store radioactive wastes underground.
Enforced by EPA and Department of Energy
Clean Air Act (1963, 1970, 1990)
Sets limits on emissions of certain air pollutants
Enforced by EPA
Endangered Species Act (1973)
Protects the endangerment of species as a consequence of economic growth and development.
Enforced by FWS and NOAA
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1975)
Keeps endangered species from becoming extinct by preventing their trade across international borders
Enforced by ESA and FWS
Taylor Grazing Act (1934)
Managed grazing and settling limits on open land by farmer and ranchers
Enforced by Department of Interior
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918)
Protects over 800 bird species from hunting, trading, purchasing, or disturbing by humans
Enforced by FWS and Secretary of Interior
National Wildlife Refuge System Act (1966)
Creates guidelines on running and managing protected wildlife areas or refuges
Enforced by Secretary of Interior and FWS
Safe Water Drinking Act (1974)
Standards set to protect waterways from contamination by chemicals, pesticides, and organic compounds that may harm human health
Enforced by EPA
Oil Spill Prevention and Liability Act (1990)
Gives EPA a trust fund to clean up oil spills when the owner of the oil can’t pay for it
Basel Convention
(1989) International agreement to protect human health by monitoring the transportation and dumping of hazardous materials
Food Security Act (1985)
Allowed lower commodity price and income supports and established a dairy herd buyout program
Enforced by USDA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980)
Gives EPA the power and money to clean up and close old hazardous waste sites
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)
EPA monitors hazardous waste sites to ensure that it is properly disposed of

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