The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century
Seagoing Scandinavian raiders from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway who disrupted coastal areas of western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries.
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages.
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
System of agricultural cultivation by 9th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains, one-third fallow.
Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity c. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
Charles the Great; Carolingian Monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany
Holy Roman Emperors
Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne’s empire; claimed title of emperor c. 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.
Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.
The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Hundred Years War
Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free Church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture.
Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Author of Yes And No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
Bernard of Clairvaux
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of several Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God
Dominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems
An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls
An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
Sworn associations of people in the same business or trade in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities.
plague that struck Europe in 14th century; significantly reduced Europe’s population; affected social structure