AP Psychology: Unit 1 Study Guide

Wilhelm Wundt
Established the first formal psychology research laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany in 1879. Introspection, quality and intensity.

Sigmund Freud
Discoverer of Psychoanalysis, however only worked cases by case therefore his work could not be generalized. He believed the unconscious was unobservable.

William James
Founded a Psychology lab at Harvard in 1870. He believed in a “flowing stream of consciousness” through images, sense, memories and mental events (adaptation as well).

Max Wertheimer
a Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures*

John B. Watson
Believed observation is important in psychology because inferences do not equal science.

B. F. Skinner
Leading proponent of Behaviorism in 1900s and was a Gestalt.

Charles Darwin
English naturalist, the father of Evolutionary Psychology, proposed the scientific theory that he called natural selection.*

Carl Rogers
Used such techniques as self theory; client-centered therapy, active listening, unconditional positive regard was among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology.*

Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs- Humanist.

Empiricism
Knowledge about the world comes to us through experience and observation, not through imagination or intuition.

Introspection
Looking Inward- Quality and Intensity(Wundt) and Clearness (Titchener).

Functionalism
The ability to adapt, make decisions and solve problems. William James

Hypothesis
A prediction stated as a specific, testable proposition about a phenomena.

Theory
An integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena.

Operational Definition
A statement that defines the exact operations or methods used in research.

Hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I knew it all along!)*

Applied research
any of several branches of psychology that seek to apply psychological principles to practical problems of education or industry or marketing etc*

Basic research
Basic research is used to explore the fundamental bases of behavior, without regard to how those bases are manifested in the real world. Basic research aims to explain, predict, and describe fundamental bases of behavior.*

Validity
The degree to which they accurately represent the topic being studied.

Reliability
The degree to which the data are stable and consistent.

Sampling
selecting participants for research.

Population
The entire group to which research is hoping to generalize.*

Random selection
Every member of the population to be studied would have an equal chance of being chosen.

Stratified sampling
the population is divided into subpopulations (strata) and random samples are taken of each stratum*

Confounding variables
Any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable.

Random Assignment
Are presumed to distribute the impact of uncontrolled variables randomly across groups.

Experimenter bias
The unintentional effect that experimenters may exert on their results.

Double-blind procedure
Both the participants and those giving the treatment are unaware of to who is receiving the placebo and the experiment.

Participant Bias
Participant bias is the tendency of the participants in any research activity or focus group discussions to act in the way they think that the evaluator wants them to act. So the researcher may not get the true reactions from his subjects. *

Hawthorne effect
Also know as the Halo Effect. This means that people will have a tenancy to try and preform better when taking part in an experiment to try and ‘help’ the researchers experiment. They will change their behavior to how they think they should act for the experiment.

Scatter plot
a graphed cluster of dots which represent the values of two variables. (Positive = directly proportional, negative = indirectly proportional, closer to zero = weak/no correlation)*

Normal Curve
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data.*

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