AP Psychology: Unit 1 Study Guide
Established the first formal psychology research laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany in 1879. Introspection, quality and intensity.
Discoverer of Psychoanalysis, however only worked cases by case therefore his work could not be generalized. He believed the unconscious was unobservable.
Founded a Psychology lab at Harvard in 1870. He believed in a “flowing stream of consciousness” through images, sense, memories and mental events (adaptation as well).
a Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures*
John B. Watson
Believed observation is important in psychology because inferences do not equal science.
B. F. Skinner
Leading proponent of Behaviorism in 1900s and was a Gestalt.
English naturalist, the father of Evolutionary Psychology, proposed the scientific theory that he called natural selection.*
Used such techniques as self theory; client-centered therapy, active listening, unconditional positive regard was among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology.*
Hierarchy of Needs- Humanist.
Knowledge about the world comes to us through experience and observation, not through imagination or intuition.
Looking Inward- Quality and Intensity(Wundt) and Clearness (Titchener).
The ability to adapt, make decisions and solve problems. William James
A prediction stated as a specific, testable proposition about a phenomena.
An integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena.
A statement that defines the exact operations or methods used in research.
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I knew it all along!)*
any of several branches of psychology that seek to apply psychological principles to practical problems of education or industry or marketing etc*
Basic research is used to explore the fundamental bases of behavior, without regard to how those bases are manifested in the real world. Basic research aims to explain, predict, and describe fundamental bases of behavior.*
The degree to which they accurately represent the topic being studied.
The degree to which the data are stable and consistent.
selecting participants for research.
The entire group to which research is hoping to generalize.*
Every member of the population to be studied would have an equal chance of being chosen.
the population is divided into subpopulations (strata) and random samples are taken of each stratum*
Any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable.
Are presumed to distribute the impact of uncontrolled variables randomly across groups.
The unintentional effect that experimenters may exert on their results.
Both the participants and those giving the treatment are unaware of to who is receiving the placebo and the experiment.
Participant bias is the tendency of the participants in any research activity or focus group discussions to act in the way they think that the evaluator wants them to act. So the researcher may not get the true reactions from his subjects. *
Also know as the Halo Effect. This means that people will have a tenancy to try and preform better when taking part in an experiment to try and ‘help’ the researchers experiment. They will change their behavior to how they think they should act for the experiment.
a graphed cluster of dots which represent the values of two variables. (Positive = directly proportional, negative = indirectly proportional, closer to zero = weak/no correlation)*
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data.*