AP Psychology Chapter 8

The component of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations
Semantics
A collection of symbols, and rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to create an infinite variety of messages
Language
The smallest units of sound in a spoken language
Phonemes
The smallest units of meaning in a language
Morphemes
The rules that specify how words can be combined into phrases and sentences
Syntax
Using a word incorrectly to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to
Overextension
Using a word to describe a narrower set of objects than it is meant to
Underextension
Single-word utterances that represent the meanings of several words
Telegraphic Speech
The ability to reflect on the use of language
Metalinguistic Awareness
Consists of the acquisition of two languages that employ different speech sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical rules
Bilingualism
The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture
Acculturation
Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
Availability Heuristic
Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
Representativeness Heuristic
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Cognition
The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
Functional Fixedness
The sudden discovery of a correct solution to a problem following incorrect attempts
Insight
A strategy for solving problems
Heuristic
The process by which children map a word on an underlying concept after only one exposure to the word
Fast Mapping
The average of youngsters’ spoken statements (measured in morphemes)
Mean Length of Utterance
Generalizing grammatical rules to irregular cases where they do not apply
Overregularization
Making decisions under conditions of uncertainty
Risky Decision Making
A hypothetical innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language
Language Acquisition Device
Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past
Mental Set
The theory that one’s language determines one’s thoughts
Linguistic Relativity
The active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
Problem Solving
Trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error unil one works
Trial and Error
Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
Decision making
How issues are posed or how choices are structured
Framing
Occurs when peoples’ belief about whether and outcome will occur changes depending on how alternative outcomes are distributed, even though the summed probability of the alternative outcomes is held constant
Alternative Outcomes Effect
A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possibly alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem
Algorithm
The tendency to seek information that supports one’s decisions and beliefs while ignoring disconfirming evidence
Confirmation Bias
Occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
Conjunction Fallacy
Refers to individuals’ tendency to rely primarily on either external or internal frames of referece when orienting themselves in space
Field dependence-independence
The belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn’t occurred recently
Gambler’s fallacy
Refers to the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver
Problem Space
Asserts that peole tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus only on a few facets of available options an often result in “irrational” decisions that are less than optimal
Theory of Bounded Rationality
Young children have a larger receptive vocabulary than productive vocabulary. In other words, they ____ more words than they ____
Understand; speak
The cognitive revolution in psychology occurred in
the 1950s
The two sentecnes “The boy hit the ball” and “The ball was hit by the boy” are the same in regard to
Syntax
Which of the following best describes the capabilities of three-month-old infants. They can distinguish
all the phonemes in their native language
In a language, the smallest units of meaning are
Morphemes
Which of the following is the best example of overregularization?
Cookie
The system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences in a language refers to
Syntax
The english language contains approximately
100 Phonemes
The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations is
Semantics
The process by which a child leanrs a new word after ony one exposure to the word it
Fast Mapping
The vocabulary spurt typically begins at around
18-24 months
Which of the following is NOT a critical property of language
Language is orderly
The area of psychology that refers broadly to mental processes or thinking is
Cognition
When an infant produces repetitive consonant-vowel combinations such as “babababa,” the infant is
Babbling
The fact that a limited number of words may be combined into an infinite number of sentences illustrates that language is
Generative
Rules exist that govern how words may be combine into phrases and sentences.This describes the critical property that language is
structured
A child is exhibiting underextension when
mom’s car
Which of the following statements is the best example of telegraphic speech
Give cookie
In the sentence “First the oven was preheated to 350 degrees,” the word preheated consists of _____ morphemes
three
Which is least accurate
Bilingual children are less advanced in language acquisition
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